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Approaches and Relative Benefits of Open Versus Minimally Invasive Surgery for Degenerative Conditions

Brett D. Rosenthal, Marco Mendoza, Barrett S. Boody and Wellington K. Hsu.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 7342 words.

Minimally invasive techniques aim to improve upon traditional open surgeries by limiting the morbidity of the surgical approach. In doing so, soft tissue collateral injury is minimized, the...

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Behavioral Assessment of the Spine Patient

Brent Van Dorsten.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 10595 words.

Behavioral health considerations are key to the evaluation of patients who are suffering from chronic pain or who are under consideration for surgical intervention. Psychosocial factors...

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Biologic and Regenerative Therapies

Ian Dworkin, Daniel A. Fung and Timothy T. Davis.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 9223 words.

Low back pain is one of the most debilitating conditions worldwide, and a major cause is degenerative disc disease. Current therapies range from conservative treatments, such as...

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Cervical Disc Disease and Extremity Pain

Jeffrey D. Petersohn.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 10916 words.

This chapter reviews the anatomic features producing extremity pain, discusses the clinical presentation of cervical disc and spondylotic disease, and explores the differential diagnosis of...

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Cervical Facet Dysfunction

Sandeep Amin.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 6325 words.

Cervical facet dysfunction poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in patients with axial neck pain due to either degenerative changes or whiplash injuries as it presents with a paucity...

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Cervical Spinal Stenosis

Genaro J. Gutierrez and Divya Chirumamilla.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 5965 words.

Cervical spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal. Degenerative cervical spinal stenosis can occur as a result of disc degeneration, osteophyte formation, and hypertrophy of...

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Cervical Spine Trauma

Jay S. Reidler, Amit Jain and A. Jay Khanna.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 6950 words.

This chapter discusses the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic injuries to the cervical spine. It describes key aspects of the history and physical examination when evaluating patients...

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Clinical Imaging of the Spine

Yair Safriel.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 10321 words.

Spinal conditions are one of the most common situations necessitating a referral for imaging. As spine therapies advance, there is a greater need for accurate spine imaging. There are four...

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Core Strengthening

Priyesh Mehta, David J. Cormier, Julie Ann Aueron and Jaspal R. Singh.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 6193 words.

Core strengthening remains a vital component of maintaining spine mechanics and assists in the prevention of injury. A complex group of muscles make up the core and function together to...

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Degenerative Conditions of the Cervical Spine

Samuel C. Overley, Dante Leven, Abhishek Kumar and Sheeraz A. Qureshi.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 8638 words.

Degenerative disease of the cervical spine, also referred to as cervical spondylosis, is one of the most common pathologies encountered by spine specialists. This degenerative condition is...

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History and Examination of the Spine

Maggie Henjum and Jodi Young.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 7319 words.

An efficient model for history-taking and physical examination of the spine using a current evidence-based approach provides the foundation for a targeted assessment and treatment plan....

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Intercostal Neuralgia and Thoracic Radiculopathy

Yili Huang and Neel Mehta.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 4536 words.

This chapter on thoracic radiculopathy and intercostal neuralgia examines the challenges and complexities of thoracic neuropathic pain. It reviews the thoracic anatomy and introduces an...

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Intrathecal Pumps

Richard L. Boortz-Marx, Daniel Moyse and Yawar J. Qadri.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 7578 words.

Neuromodulation options that exist for chronic pain treatment include targeted intrathecal drug delivery, spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cortical stimulation, and...

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Lumbar Disc Disorders

Daniel Kline and Michael DePalma.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 5242 words.

This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of discogenic low back pain. Discogenic low back pain is a prevalent condition that affects a large percentage of the adult population....

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Lumbar Facet Arthropathy

Leonardo Kapural, Harish Badhey and Suneil Jolly.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 3655 words.

Lumbar facet dysfunction is a common cause of low back pain. This syndrome appears to involve anatomic and pathophysiologic degeneration, and the elderly are more commonly affected. This...

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Lumbar Radiculopathy and Radicular Pain

Brandon J. Goff, Kevin B. Guthmiller, Jamie C. Clapp, William B. Lassiter, Morgan J. Baldridge, Sven M. Hochheimer and Margaux M. Salas.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 5590 words.

Lumbar radicular pain is a significant burden for patients and is one of the most common complaints presented to spine practitioners. In the young, it is most often due to acute disc...

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Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

David A. Mazin and Mehul J. Desai.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 3865 words.

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common, painful spine condition. It generally occurs in older patients who have degenerative changes in the lumbar spine. A careful history will aid in the...

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Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

Mehul J. Desai, Puneet Sayal and Michael S. Leong.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 3070 words.

Lumbar spondylolisthesis typically presents as low back and/or lower extremity pain. Spondylolisthesis is most commonly observed in female patients and the elderly. Lumbar spondylolisthesis...

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Opioids in Spine Pain: Indications, Challenges, and Controversies

Puneet Sayal and Jianren Mao.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 4680 words.

Opioid medications are commonly used in the treatment of spine-mediated pain. They are used on a chronic, long-term basis, and their use is on the rise. The available evidence supports...

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Pelvic Pain and Floor Dysfunction

Danielle Sarno and Farah Hameed.

in The Spine Handbook

May 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Pain Medicine; Rehabilitation Medicine; Spinal Surgery. 8486 words.

Chronic pelvic pain is defined as persistent pain perceived in structures related to the anatomic pelvis (lower abdomen below the umbilicus) of either women or men for greater than 6...

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