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Engineering and Technology x Environment x clear all

Acid Deposition

Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 9328 words.

Acid deposition is one of the major environmental problems of the modern world. This broad term refers to a mix of wet and dry material containing high amounts of primarily nitrogen (N) and...

Acid Deposition

Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online October 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 9328 words.

Acid deposition is one of the major environmental problems of the modern world. This broad term refers to a mix of wet and dry material containing high amounts of primarily nitrogen (N) and...

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment

Heather Williams.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online August 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Environmental History; Management of Land and Natural Resources (Social Science); Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Social Science); Agriculture and Farming; Environmental Economics. 10280 words.

Worldwide, governments subsidize agriculture at the rate of approximately 1 billion dollars per day. This figure rises to about twice that when export and biofuels production subsidies and...

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Agrochemical Pollutants

Kathleen Bowmer.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 9044 words.

Pesticides and fertilizers are widely used in agriculture. They are essential to the production of food and fiber for a growing world population, but they become pollutants when they damage...

Allen, Edward Tyson

Veronica June Bruce.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Agriculture and Farming; Social and Cultural History; Conservation of the Environment (Social Science). 1162 words.

Allen, Edward Tyson (26 December 1875–27 May 1942), forester and conservationist, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Oscar Dana Allen, a professor of analytical chemistry at the...

Antarctica

Peter Convey.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 9211 words.

Antarctica originally formed part of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, and its fossil record shows that the continent hosted cool temperate and even subtropical forests, dinosaurs,...

Anthropocene

Andrew Goudie.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8360 words.

The term “Anthropocene” has Greek roots (anthropo meaning “human” and –cene meaning “new”). It is a new term for an older concept, and a great deal of argument concerns how it can be...

Arid Environments

David S.G. Thomas.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 9468 words.

Arid environments cover almost half the earth’s land surface and embrace a considerable range of environmental conditions. Terms such as arid, desert, and dryland are commonly used...

Australia’s Environment and Its Management

I.D. Rutherfurd.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 4826 words.

The Southern Hemisphere island continent of Australia (7 million km2) is old, flat, stable, and dry, with a high proportion of endemic biota. The environment of Australia is fundamentally...

Bennett, Hugh Hammond

Douglas Helms.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Agriculture and Farming; Social and Cultural History; Conservation of the Environment (Social Science). 1263 words.

Bennett, Hugh Hammond (15 April 1881–07 July 1960), soil conservationist and soil scientist, was born near Wadesboro in Anson County, North Carolina, the son of William Osborne Bennett and...

Bush Encroachment

Timothy Gordon O'Connor and Nicola Stevens.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 13603 words.

Savannas are a significant biome within the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia, North America, South America, and Southeast Asia including India. On a global scale,...

Carbon Dynamics

Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Chelsea Arnold, Lixia Jin, Michael Kaiser and Rebecca Lever.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 11544 words.

The biogeochemical cycle of carbon (C) in the earth system controls fluxes, pools, and transformations associated with life’s most fundamental element. As the most basic building block for...

Case Studies in Groundwater Contaminant Fate and Transport

Barbara Bekins.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 14647 words.

A case study of groundwater contamination is a detailed study of a single site contaminated with a chemical or mixture that is known to be a problem at many sites. The goal of case studies...

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization

Elisabeth N. Bui.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online September 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Earth Sciences and Geography; Agriculture and Farming. 10003 words.

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of soil...

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Classification and Mitigation of Soil Salinization

Tibor Tóth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Agriculture and Farming. 10205 words.

Soil salinity has been causing problems for agriculturists for millennia, primarily in irrigated lands. The importance of salinity issues is increasing, since large areas are affected by...

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Climate Change and Conflict in Northern Africa

Janpeter Schilling and Lisa Krause.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 13831 words.

Climate change is one of the key challenges the world is facing in the 21st century. Concerns are increasingly raised that climate change might not only undermine the livelihoods of...

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa

Laura Pereira.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Environmental Science); Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Social Science); Agriculture and Farming. 12222 words.

Confidence in the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural systems has increased substantially since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. In...

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Common Pool Resources

Tanya Heikkila and David P. Carter.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8513 words.

Common pool resources (CPRs) are characterized as resources for which the exclusion of users is difficult (referred to as excludability), and the use of such a resource by one user...

Contaminant Dispersal in the Environment

Roberto Bargagli and Emilia Rota.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online October 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 8794 words.

Contaminants are foreign substances or impurities affecting the composition of air, water, soil, and biota and not always creating adverse effects. However, when the term “contamination” is...

Critical Zone

Tim White and Sarah Sharkey.

in Environmental Science

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Environment; Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology; Environmental Science. 5688 words.

The critical zone (CZ), a term coined by the US National Research Council in 2001, encompasses the thin outer veneer of Earth’s surface, extending from the top of the vegetation canopy down...