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adaeratio

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Michael Crawford.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 222 words.

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aerarii

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 99 words.

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aerarium

Graham Burton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 418 words.

Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state...

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alimenta

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 424 words.

The purpose of the alimentary foundations in the Roman empire was to give an allowance for feeding children, and this was achieved by the investment of capital in mortgage on land, the...

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annona (other products)

Carlos Machado.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History. 6279 words.

The annona was the imperial service responsible for overseeing the supply of key food items to the city of Rome and the army. Primarily concerned with grain, the service became increasingly...

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apodektai

P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 62 words.

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artisans and craftsmen

Cameron Hawkins.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 4367 words.

The social worlds of artisans and craftsmen were structured around skill on both conceptual and practical levels. On a conceptual level, artisans employed skill (τέχνη / ars) as a crucial...

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associations, Roman

Koenraad Verboven.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Religion in the Ancient World. 3280 words.

Voluntary associations are attested already in early republican times, but they became important especially during the late Republic. Their role in street politics in the 1st century bce le...

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auctions

Jean Andreau.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History. 2524 words.

An auction is a type of sale consisting of a public competition between several buyers; whoever bids the highest price obtains the object being sold. Such auctions existed in the Greek as...

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baking, Roman

Jared T. Benton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online November 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; History of Science and Technology; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 3384 words.

The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of...

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Barff, Samuel (1793?–1880), philhellene and banker

J. M. Hussey.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Classical Studies; Banking. 304 words.

Barff, Samuel (1793?–1880), philhellene and banker, was probably born in England. In 1816 he established himself in Zante, Greece, where he became an important merchant and banker. He died...

bribery, Greek

Simon Hornblower.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 155 words.

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Carrara

T. W. Potter.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 156 words.

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clubs, Greek

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Simon Hornblower.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Religion in the Ancient World. 804 words.

Despite the large number and great popularity of clubs in the Greek world, both in the Hellenistic and in the Graeco-Roman period, literature makes surprisingly few references to them, and the...

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collatio lustralis

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 268 words.

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commentarii

Christopher Pelling.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 256 words.

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congiarium

Michael Crawford.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 81 words.

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contubernium

M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 158 words.

Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave...

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dēmiourgoi

Frank William Walbank and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 259 words.

Dēmiourgoi, ‘public workers’, are in *Homer such independent craftsmen as metalworkers, potters, and masons, and also seers, doctors, bards, and heralds. *Plato (1) and *Xenophon (1) use the word...

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Docimium

Stephen Mitchell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 176 words.

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