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Abraham

Kenny A. Franks.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Native American History; World History. 746 words.

Abraham (fl. 1826–1845), "Prophet", also known as “Prophet,” was a runaway slave who became a prominent leader among the Seminoles. Nothing is known about his parents or childhood. Fleeing...

Adair, John (1660–1718), geographer and cartographer

Charles W. J. Withers.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Earth Sciences and Geography; Cartography; World History. 1491 words.

Adair, John (1660–1718), geographer and cartographer, was born on 2 September 1660 in Leith, Scotland. Nothing is known of his parents or his early education. The first firm reference to...

Adams, Clement (c. 1519–1587), schoolmaster and map engraver

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Cartography; World History; Education; Prints and Printmaking. 719 words.

Adams, Clement (c. 1519–1587), schoolmaster and map engraver, was born at Buckington, Warwickshire. He was educated at Eton between 1530 and 1536, and subsequently at the King's Hall,...

Adams, Harriet Chalmers

Tamar Y. Rothenberg.

in American National Biography Online

P ublished online October 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; Journalism; Education. 1374 words.

Adams, Harriet Chalmers (22 October 1875–17 July 1937), explorer, lecturer, and writer, was born Harriet Chalmers in Stockton, California. Her father, Alexander Chalmers, Canadian via...

Adams, John [alias Alexander Smith] (1768?–1829), seaman, mutineer, and settler

J. K. Laughton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; World History. 859 words.

Adams, John [alias Alexander Smith] (1768?–1829), seaman, mutineer, and settler, was born in London probably in 1768 and was serving under the name of Smith as an able seaman on HMS Bounty ...

Akeley, Mary Leonore Jobe

Robert L. Gale.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; Education. 1463 words.

Akeley, Mary Leonore Jobe (29 January 1878–19 July 1966), explorer, author, and educator, was born near Tappan, Ohio, the daughter of Richard Watson Jobe and Sarah Jane Pittis, farmers....

Albert Lebrun

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — World History.

(1871–1950)

French statesman, 17th and last President (1932–40) of the Third Republic. A moderate conservative, he pursued a respected but unspectacular parliamentary career...

See overview in Oxford Index

Alden, John

Mark A. Peterson.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Agriculture and Farming; World History; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 916 words.

Alden, John (1599?–12 September 1687), farmer and magistrate, was one of the original settlers of Plymouth Colony, arriving in New England on the Mayflower in 1620. No definite information...

Aldersey, Laurence (1546–1597/8), sea captain

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Transport Technology and Trades; Transport; World History; Travel and Holiday. 737 words.

Aldersey, Laurence (1546–1597/8), sea captain, was born at Aldersey Hall, Spurstow, Cheshire, the son of Thomas Aldersey (d. 1557), sheriff of Chester in 1539 and mayor in 1549, and his...

Alija Izetbegović

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — World History.

(1925–2003)

Bosnian politician, President of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–96), and part of a rotating tripartite presidency (1996–2000). Izetbegović's championing of Islam brought...

See overview in Oxford Index

Allen, Ethan

Michael Bellesiles.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; World History. 1330 words.

Allen, Ethan (10 January 1738–12 February 1789), frontier revolutionary leader and author of the first deistic work by an American, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Joseph...

Allen, Ira

J. Kevin Graffagnino.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; Business and Management; World History. 1290 words.

Allen, Ira (01 May 1751–15 January 1814), frontier entrepreneur and Vermont political leader, was born in Cornwall, Connecticut, the son of Joseph Allen and Mary Baker, farmers. Little is...

Allerton, Isaac

Francis J. Bremer.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; World History. 865 words.

Allerton, Isaac (1586– February 1659), merchant in the early years of the Plymouth colony, . Little is known of Allerton’s early life, and nothing is known regarding his education and...

Andean Community

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Financial Institutions and Services.

(CAN)

An association of South American nations set up in 1969 to enhance economic cooperation. The original members were Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela;...

See overview in Oxford Index

Anderson, Joseph (1790–1877), army officer and colonist

H. M. Chichester.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; World History. 726 words.

Anderson, Joseph (1790–1877), army officer and colonist, was born on 1 July 1790 at Keoldale, Sutherland, Scotland, the son of James Anderson of Rispond and his wife, Fairly Gordon. In 1805...

Andries Pretorius

Overview page. Subjects: World History — African Studies.

(1798–1853)

Boer leader and general. After several frontier campaigns against the Xhosa he took part in the Great Trek, and became commandant-general of the Boers after Piet...

See overview in Oxford Index

Angas, William Henry (1781–1832), mariner and missionary

Roald Kverndal.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Transport Technology and Trades; Transport; Religion and Education; World History; Travel and Holiday. 1452 words.

Angas, William Henry (1781–1832), mariner and missionary, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne on 6 October 1781, the son of Caleb Angas, a successful coach manufacturer, merchant, and...

Anza, Juan Bautista de

Michael Mathes.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; World History; Maps and Map-making; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 890 words.

Anza, Juan Bautista de (07 July 1736–19 December 1788), military commander, explorer, and governor, was born in the presidio of Fronteras, Sonora, Mexico, the son of Juan Bautista de Anza,...

The Arab Revolutions of 2011: Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Syria

in Revolutions

February 2014; p ublished online January 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: World History; Revolutions and Rebellions; Politics. 4014 words.

The sudden collapse of regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Syria startled the world. These revolutions have just begun, and it is too soon to say how they will end. ‘The Arab Revolutions...

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Arbuthnott

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; Genealogy, Heraldry, Names, and Honours; World History; Travel and Holiday; Social and Cultural History; Business Finance. 300 words.

KT 1996; CBE 1986; DSC 1945; FRSE 1984

Born 26 Oct. 1924; e s of 15th Viscount of Arbuthnott, CB, CBE, DSO, MC, and Ursula Collingwood (...