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Adorno, Theodor

Alan Sica.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Political Theory; Education; Philosophy; Composition. 1174 words.

Adorno, Theodor (11 September 1903–06 August 1969), social and political theorist, aesthetician, and atonalist musical composer, was born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund in Frankfurt, Germany,...

African Christianity

Thomas Spear.

in African Studies

P ublished online August 2013 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 20420 words.

Christianity in Africa goes back to the earliest days of the church, when it spread along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coastlands of north and northeast Africa and their hinterlands....

African Oral and Written Traditions

Harold Scheub.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 7066 words.

It is the task of the storyteller, in both the oral and written traditions of Africa, to forge the fantasy images of the past into masks of the realistic images of the present, enabling the...

African Socialism

Kelly Askew.

in African Studies

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 24574 words.

After obtaining independence from the colonial powers in the 1950s through the 1980s, newly established African states had to decide whether to pursue Western-style electoral democracy with...

African Studies

Edited by Thomas Spear.

P ublished online October 2012 .

Research Guide. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies.

Made up of a rapidly expanding range of articles written by distinguished international scholars, this dynamic, continuously updated online resource offers exclusive authoritative research...

African Traditional Religion

Wyatt MacGaffey.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 9491 words.

The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. Loosely, it encompasses all African beliefs and practices that are considered religious but neither Christian...

Africans in the Atlantic World

Toby Green.

in African Studies

P ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 9713 words.

The place of Africans in the Atlantic world is one of enormous, and contested, significance. Demographically, they form the large majority of those who crossed the Atlantic and settled in...

Aid and Economic Development

Alice N. Sindzingre.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 14024 words.

The analysis of the relationships between foreign aid—also called “official development assistance” (ODA)—and economic development is a core issue in the disciplines of development...

Aid and Economic Development

Alice N. Sindzingre.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 14024 words.

The analysis of the relationships between foreign aid—also called “official development assistance” (ODA)—and economic development is a core issue in the disciplines of development...

Alain, Marie-Claire Geneviève

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Music. 173 words.

Born 10 Aug. 1926; d of Albert Alain and Magdeleine Alain (née Alberty); m 1950, Jacques Gommier (d 1992); one d (one s decd); died 26 Feb. 2013...

Albani, Dame Emma

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; Music; Military History; Warfare and Defence. 118 words.

DBE 1925

Born Chambly, near Montreal, 1 Nov. 1852; née Marie Louise Emma Cecile; e d of late Joseph Lajeunesse, musician, organist, and harpist; m...null...

Algeria

Phillip Naylor.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 12584 words.

Algeria, Africa’s largest country, remains understudied except for its modern history, which features an oppressive colonialism, a dramatic war of decolonization, and a contentious...

Allan [Allen], James [Jimmy] (1734–1810), Northumbrian piper and rogue

Keith Gregson.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Woodwinds; Property Law; Property Crime. 980 words.

Allan [Allen], James [Jimmy] (1734–1810), Northumbrian piper and rogue, was born at Hepple, Northumberland, probably in March 1734, and baptized at Rothbury, Northumberland, on 21 April...

Allen, Sir Hugh Percy (1869–1946), musicologist and conductor

W. K. Stanton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music Education and Pedagogy; Conducting; Education. 1202 words.

Allen, Sir Hugh Percy (1869–1946), musicologist and conductor, was born at Reading on 23 December 1869, the youngest of the seven children of John Herbert Allen, who was in business with...

Ancient Egypt

Toby Wilkinson.

in African Studies

P ublished online February 2016 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 10708 words.

Ancient Egypt produced the longest-lived civilization of the ancient world and one of the most stable systems of government in human history. The surviving artifacts and monuments from the...

André Brink

Isidore Diala.

in African Studies

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 20079 words.

André Philippus Brink (b. 1935—d. 2015) is acclaimed as one of South Africa’s foremost writers. Internationally renowned novelist, playwright, scholar, critic, translator, travel writer,...

Angelou, Marguerite Annie, (Maya)

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; Media Studies; Performing Arts; Education; Literature; Publishing; Music. 294 words.

Born St Louis, 4 April 1928; d of Bailey Johnson and Vivian Baxter Johnson; one s; died 28 May 2014

writer, singer and actress

George Washington High Sch.,...

Angola

W. Martin James.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 9981 words.

Angola is a land of contrast. It has abundant natural resources such as petroleum, diamonds, phosphate, timber, and fish. It also has numerous rivers for hydroelectric energy and fertile...

Angola

W. Martin James.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 9981 words.

Angola is a land of contrast. It has abundant natural resources such as petroleum, diamonds, phosphate, timber, and fish. It also has numerous rivers for hydroelectric energy and fertile...

Anstice, Joseph (1808–1836), classical scholar and hymn writer

Alexander Gordon.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religion; Education; Classical Studies; Composition. 408 words.

Anstice, Joseph (1808–1836), classical scholar and hymn writer, the second son of William Anstice and his wife, Penelope, daughter of John Poole of Over Stowey, Somerset, was born on 21...