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Social Sciences x Sports and Exercise Medicine x clear all

achieved status

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A high social status acquired by individual effort or open competition (for example, through winning at sport), rather than from the status the person is born with. Compare ascribed status.

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achievement

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

1 The level of performance attained by an athlete particularly in a standardized series of tests.

2 In sociology, the acquisition of social position or...

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achievement motivation

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Business and Management.

Defined as the need to perform well or the striving for success, and evidenced by persistence and effort in the face of difficulties, achievement motivation is regarded as a central human...

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agility

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Human Resource Management.

Or organizational agility is the capacity of a business organization to adapt to long-run changes in products, markets, or technology. Agility is sometimes contrasted with ‘flexibility’,...

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athleticism

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

Devotion to or emphasis on physical fitness. Athleticism and an enthusiasm for sporting activities was a component of so-called ‘muscular Christianity': a loosely knit movement at the end...

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burnout

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Business and Management.

A work-related condition of emotional exhaustion in which interest in work, personal achievement, and efficiency decline sharply and the sufferer is no longer capable of making decisions....

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callisthenics

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Systematic, rhythmic, light exercises, such as abdominal curls and push-ups, that utilize the weight of the body as resistance. Callisthenics are designed to tone and strengthen muscles,...

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civilizing process

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The historical process by which people have acquired a greater capacity for controlling their emotions. Associated with the civilizing process has been a lower tolerance of anti-social...

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comeback

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

In sport, the relaunch of a sports career for a once-retired athlete.

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comparative method

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A method of testing hypotheses about causal relationships, or establishing social types and classes, by looking at the similarities and differences between phenomena, societies or cultures....

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critical mass

Overview page. Subjects: Business and Management — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A threshold number of users or customers needed for the sustainable growth of a product or service. Critical mass is required for the success of many online communities and for competing...

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crowd

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A relatively unstructured mass of people who group together in a given area in a more or less spontaneous way, for a short time, in response to an attraction, such as a sports event.

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cultural diffusion

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A social process resulting in the transfer of beliefs, values, and social activities (e.g. games or sports) from one society to another.

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deviance amplification

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sociology.

Introduced by Leslie Wilkins in his book Social Deviance (1967), the concept suggests that a small initial deviation may spiral into ever-increasing significance through processes of...

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domination

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sociology.

Rule by coercion or noncoercive compliance. Individuals or groups may exercise power over others—domination—either by brute force or because that power is accepted as legitimate by those...

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drill

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

1 A precise, well-defined motor skill practised repeatedly.

2 A pre-determined series of actions.

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encounter

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

Any meeting between two or more people in face-to-face interactions. Sporting competitions are made up of many such interactions.

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enculturation

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The process of formally and informally learning and internalizing the prevailing values, and accepted behavioural patterns of a culture. The term is sometimes used synonymously with...

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exercise physiology

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Sport and Leisure.

A branch of physiology concerned with how the body adapts physiologically to the acute (short-term) stress of exercise or physical activity, and the chronic (long-term) stress of physical...

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extrinsic motivation

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Business and Management.

An incentive to do something that arises from factors outside the individual, such as rewards or penalties. The promise of a bonus if one meets agreed performance targets is an obvious...

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