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Active Offender Research

Scott Jacques.

in Criminology

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 6538 words.

Before criminology became obsessed with quantitative research, many of the field’s insights about crime came from offenders’ “own stories,” although this work typically used accounts from...

Adolescent Victimization

Marie Skubak Tillyer and Marissa E. Hinton.

in Criminology

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4715 words.

Because not all crimes are reported to law enforcement, researchers have generally used survey data collected from adolescents to better understand the nature, patterns, causes, and...

Adult Offender Assessment and Classification in Custodial Settings

James Bonta and J.S. Wormith.

in The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment

P ublished online November 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Prisons and Jails. 13262 words.

This chapter describes the developments that have occurred over the past three decades in the area of offender assessment and classification, including discussion of why offender...

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Adverse Childhood Experiences

Joan A. Reid.

in Criminology

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7473 words.

Substantial bodies of research from various fields have consistently documented the long-term, detrimental effects of childhood maltreatment and trauma. In the health science field, a body...

The Aging Prison Population

Samuel Scaggs.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 8340 words.

Since the 1980s, the proportion of state and federal prisoners who are older has experienced unprecedented changes to the extent that they currently represent the fastest-growing inmate...

The aims and values of ‘criminal justice’

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young and Mandy Burton.

in Criminal Justice

July 2010; p ublished online June 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 31234 words.

This chapter discusses the nature and structure of ‘criminal justice’; proving guilt and innocence; adversarial and inquisitorial theories of criminal justice; recent trends in criminal...

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Airport and Airline Security

Peter Adey.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 9562 words.

The airport is a site where the sorting and effective differentiation of the (global) mobilities of people and things take place. It is a nexus in a node of a network or system of...

Alcohol and Drug Problems: Law Enforcement and Legal Policy

Anna Celeste Burke.

in Encyclopedia of Social Work

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Addictions and Substance Misuse; Criminal Justice; Social Policy and Advocacy. 4555 words.

Historically, U.S. policy has been characterized by long-standing ambivalence evident in the changing emphasis placed on prohibition as the aim of drug policy, and in debate about the...

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Alcohol and Drug Prohibition

Wayne Hall and Sarah Yeates.

in Criminology

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7536 words.

In standard reference works such as the Oxford English Dictionary, a general definition of prohibition as “the action or act of forbidding” is quickly followed by a definition of...

Alcohol Use, Policy and Crime

Robert Nash Parker and Kevin McCaffree.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 14427 words.

The topic of alcohol use in society is multifaceted and dynamic. Consciousness-altering substance use can be found in the archaeological record dating back to the very beginning of human...

Alfred Blumstein

Robert Brame.

in Criminology

P ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 5640 words.

Alfred “Al” Blumstein’s career contributions stand at the intersection of operations research, policy analysis, and criminology. A member of the National Academy of Engineering who has...

Alternatives to Incarceration

Faye S. Taxman and Alex Breno.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 9875 words.

Alternatives to incarceration are more than options, they have evolved into sentences of their own accord. Originally, probation and prison were the two major sentences; however, the...

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Alt-Right Gangs and White Power Youth Groups

Matthew Valasik and Shannon E. Reid.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 8682 words.

Gang scholars for the last three decades have explicitly excluded youths who are active, overtly or implicitly, in white supremacy groups (e.g., neo-Nazis; racist skinheads; white...

American Corrections: Reform Without Change

Karol Lucken and Thomas G. Blomberg.

in The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections

April 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Prisons and Jails; Corrections. 8459 words.

This article outlines the corrections system of America. It traces the history of the corrections system and offers some observations on what led to the massive prison buildup. It considers...

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Anomie

Eric P. Baumer.

in Criminology

P ublished online February 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 5378 words.

The term anomie has been widely used for the past several centuries to describe societal conditions. Although it has been defined and applied in different ways throughout history, it has...

Appeals against conviction

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young and Mandy Burton.

in Criminal Justice

July 2010; p ublished online June 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 30078 words.

This chapter examines appeal procedures. It discusses the values that should underpin appellate procedures; appeals from the magistrates' courts; appeals from the Crown Court to the Court...

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Arrest

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young and Mandy Burton.

in Criminal Justice

July 2010; p ublished online June 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Criminal Justice. 36328 words.

This chapter examines how far the police are, and should be, allowed to infringe the freedom of the individual through arrest. It considers the legal rules and their effectiveness in...

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Arson

Rebekah Doley.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 2651 words.

The psychology of deliberate firesetting has been relatively under-researched until recently. Challenges have included a range of synonyms (e.g., fire-bug, arsonist, pyromaniac) used to...

Bail and Pretrial Detention

Celesta Albonetti.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7841 words.

Determining the accused pretrial status requires tracing the interplay between legislative and case law attempts to define the legal function of bail. The perennial concern has been the...

Biosocial Criminology

John Paul Wright.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4994 words.

Biological and genetic processes are believed to underlie many of the individual traits associated with persistent criminal conduct. Personality factors, such as neuroticism, mental...