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Social Sciences x Penology and Punishment x clear all

Alternatives to Incarceration

Faye S. Taxman and Alex Breno.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 9875 words.

Alternatives to incarceration are more than options, they have evolved into sentences of their own accord. Originally, probation and prison were the two major sentences; however, the...

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Capital Punishment

Paul Kaplan.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Penology and Punishment. 7668 words.

The death penalty, also referred to as capital punishment, is the process whereby a state government orders a sentence of death for a person found guilty of a particular set of criminal...

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The Death Penalty

Randall McGowen.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

May 2016; p ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 10354 words.

Although the death penalty often appears a timeless question, the last three centuries have witnessed dramatic changes in the frequency and organization of capital punishment in Europe and...

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The Death Penalty in the 21st Century

Daniel LaChance.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Criminal Justice; Dimensions of Crime; Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 12673 words.

The dawn of the 21st century marked a turning point in the history of the American death penalty. Politically, the death penalty seemed vulnerable. A wave of abolitionism not seen since the...

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Disciplinary Segregation in Prison

Benjamin Steiner.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 9168 words.

Disciplinary segregation is a punishment that prison officials impose in response to inmate violations of prison rules such as assaulting another inmate or disrespecting an officer....

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Disparity in Capital Sentencing

Marian R. Williams.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 10529 words.

The death penalty has long been a source of debate and is perhaps the most litigated sentence in the United States. Arguments for the use of the death penalty point to “just deserts” or...

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Gender and Punishment

Lynne Haney and Lili Dao.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Corrections; Dimensions of Crime; Penology and Punishment. 12960 words.

In many respects, gender has been missing from the enormous literature on the form and focus of state systems of punishment. This is true in both the historical accounts on shifts in penal...

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General Deterrence

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Courts and Procedure; Penology and Punishment. 12464 words.

This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and...

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Intensive Supervision Probation

Geoffrey C. Barnes and Jordan M. Hyatt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 8740 words.

Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) is a form of community supervision that employs smaller caseloads, more frequent contacts, and a variety of other mechanisms to increase the level of...

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Legitimacy and Lawful Policing

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Policing; Penology and Punishment; Theories of Crime. 22725 words.

This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and...

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The Math and Science of Decarceration

James Austin.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online April 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 9630 words.

Despite a growing consensus that “mass incarceration” in the United States has reached unacceptable levels, there has been little movement in its decline. National imprisonment rates seem...

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Mercy and Parole in Anglo-American Criminal Justice Systems from the Eighteenth Century to the Twenty-First Century

Carolyn Strange.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

May 2016; p ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 11483 words.

Mercy’s long association with the whims of emperors and monarchs altered with the emergence of republics and democracies in the modern era. Over the nineteenth century mercy became...

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Norbert Elias, the Civilizing Process, and Punishment

John Pratt.

P ublished online April 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 11405 words.

The way a society punishes its offenders has become a yardstick by which it can be judged as civilized. In civilized societies, for example, punishment on the human body has become...

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Perceptual Deterrence Theory

Ray Paternoster and Ronet Bachman.

in The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory

November 2012; p ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Theories of Crime; Penology and Punishment. 11399 words.

According to deterrence theory in criminology, we are affected by both the costs and rewards that are consequent to our behavior. In other words, we tend to behave based on the expectation...

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Philosophies of Punishment

Jerry Cederblom.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 468 words.

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Please check back later for the full article.null...

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Prosecution Appeals Against Sentence

Arie Freiberg.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: International and Comparative Criminology; Penology and Punishment. 10997 words.

Sentencing is a complex task that involves judicial officers imposing sentences in the first instance and deciding appeals from those judges in certain circumstances. Both trial and...

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Punishment

Michael Tonry.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment. 14336 words.

This article discusses important ways of thinking about punishment. Section I discusses the history and recent past of work by philosophers and legal theorists. Section II surveys major...

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Punishment, Justice, and Emotions

Henrique Carvalho and Anastasia Chamberlen.

P ublished online April 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Penology and Punishment. 11733 words.

This essay discusses the relation among emotions, punishment, and justice. It reviews theoretical scholarship on the role of punishment in society and sociological research on emotions,...

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Race, Ethnicity, and Sentencing

Jeffrey Ulmer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Dimensions of Crime; Penology and Punishment. 9183 words.

Much has been written about mass incarceration and how it has fallen especially hard on people of color. Given their representation in the U.S. population, for example, black and Hispanic...

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Reassurance, Reinforcement, and Legitimacy

Matt Matravers.

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

September 2011; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Penology and Punishment; Theories of Crime. 8117 words.

This article considers the point of systems of criminal justice; reviews Émile Durkheim's theory and its application to contemporary societies; reviews the evidence concerning the ways in...

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