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Austin, Henry (1811/12–1861), civil engineer and sanitarian

Christopher Hamlin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Construction; Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Building. 734 words.

Austin, Henry (1811/12–1861), civil engineer and sanitarian, was the son of William Austin, medical practitioner, of Bloomsbury Square, London. Two sisters and at least one brother survived...

Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer

John G. Corina.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Industrial Chemistry; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1287 words.

Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer, was born in Regensdorf, Switzerland, on 24 November 1890, the youngest of thirteen children of a protestant farmer,...

Dunn, Matthias (bap. 1788, d. 1869), mining engineer and inspector of mines

Margaret Ray.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online September 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Engineering and Technology. 1901 words.

Dunn, Matthias (bap. 1788, d. 1869), mining engineer and inspector of mines, was baptized at St Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, Birtley, co. Durham, on 10 December 1788, the son of Robert...

Flick, Lawrence Francis

Barbara Bates.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health; Education; History; History of Science and Technology. 1064 words.

Flick, Lawrence Francis (10 August 1856–07 July 1938), physician, historian, and early leader in the campaign against tuberculosis, was born in Carroll Township, Cambria County,...

Frost, John (1803–1840), medical entrepreneur

D. E. Allen.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health; Science and Mathematics. 1186 words.

Frost, John (1803–1840), medical entrepreneur, was baptized at St Martin-in-the-Fields on 9 May 1803, the son of William and Mary Frost, who were in business in the Charing Cross area of...

Hoffman, Frederick Ludwig

F. J. Sypher.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Probability and Statistics. 1562 words.

Hoffman, Frederick Ludwig (02 May 1865–23 February 1946), statistician and public health author, was born in the town of Varel, in the former Duchy of Oldenburg (near the North Sea, not far...

Horner, Leonard (1785–1864), factory inspector, geologist, and educationist

P. W. J. Bartrip.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Political Institutions; Public Administration; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Education; Geology and the Lithosphere; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1272 words.

Horner, Leonard (1785–1864), factory inspector, geologist, and educationist, was born on 17 January 1785 at St George's Square, Edinburgh, the third and youngest son of John Horner (d....

Jennings, (Josiah) George (1810–1882), sanitary engineer

David J. Eveleigh.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Engineering (General). 2253 words.

Jennings, (Josiah) George (1810–1882), sanitary engineer, was born at Eling, Hampshire, on 10 November 1810, the eldest son of Joseph Jennings (1771–1824), plumber, and his wife, Mary...

Koplik, Henry

Howard Markel.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Paediatrics; Microbiology; Medicine and Health. 1077 words.

Koplik, Henry (28 October 1858–30 April 1927), pediatrician, educator, and microbiologist, was born in New York City, the son of Abraham S. Koplik and Rosalie K. Prager. Koplik received his...

Lankester, Edwin (1814–1874), public health reformer and natural historian

Mary P. English.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health; Natural History. 1771 words.

Lankester, Edwin (1814–1874), public health reformer and natural historian, was born on 23 April 1814 at Melton, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. His father, William Lankester (1791–1818), was a...

Law, James

Philip M. Teigen.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Science and Mathematics; Education; Veterinary Medicine. 1473 words.

Law, James (13 February 1838–10 May 1921), veterinarian, educator, and public health advocate, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of John Law and Grace Turner, farmers. In 1857 he...

Moule, Henry (1801–1880), Church of England clergyman and inventor of the dry earth closet

G. C. Boase.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Engineering and Technology; Medicine and Health; Protestantism and Protestant Churches. 663 words.

Moule, Henry (1801–1880), Church of England clergyman and inventor of the dry earth closet, was born at Melksham, Wiltshire, on 27 January 1801, the sixth son of George Moule (1768–1830),...

Pennington, Mary Engle

Elizabeth Noble Shor.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicinal Chemistry. 1110 words.

Pennington, Mary Engle (08 October 1872–27 December 1952), food-processing chemist, was born in Nashville, Tennessee, the daughter of Henry Pennington and Sarah B. Molony. Soon after her...

Plimsoll, Samuel (1824–1898), politician and shipping reformer

Anita McConnell.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; UK Politics; Transport Technology and Trades; Transport. 2043 words.

Plimsoll, Samuel (1824–1898), politician and shipping reformer, was born on 10 February 1824 at 3 Colston's Parade, Bristol, the eighth of thirteen children born to Thomas Plimsoll...

Poekrich [Pockrich], Richard (1696/7–1759), inventor of musical glasses and social and economic reformer

D. J. O'Donoghue.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Engineering and Technology; Instrument-building Firms; Labour and Demographic Economics; Economics. 710 words.

Poekrich [Pockrich], Richard (1696/7–1759), inventor of musical glasses and social and economic reformer, was born in Aghnamallagh, near the town of Monaghan, Ireland, and was descended...

Poindexter, Hildrus Augustus

Kenneth R. Manning.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health; Political Institutions; Public Administration; Microbiology. 1257 words.

Poindexter, Hildrus Augustus (10 May 1901–20 April 1987), physician, microbiologist, and public health specialist, was born on a farm near Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Fred Poindexter and...

Ranger, William (1799–1863), civil engineer and sanitary inspector

Brian Lancaster.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Building; Political Institutions; Public Administration. 1024 words.

Ranger, William (1799–1863), civil engineer and sanitary inspector, was the son of Richard Ranger (d. 1839), a builder and later town commissioner, and his wife, Mary, née Martin, who were...

Rodale, J. I.

Carlton Jackson.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Agriculture and Farming; Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Journalism. 1187 words.

Rodale, J. I. (16 August 1898–07 June 1971), health food publisher, was born Jerome Irving Cohen in New York City, the son of Michael Cohen, a capmaker and grocer, and Bertha Rouda. Both...

Rosen, George

Edward T. Morman.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; History of Science and Technology; Education. 1270 words.

Rosen, George (23 June 1910–27 July 1977), medical historian and public health educator, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Morris Rosen, a garment worker, and Rose Handleman....

Shanks, John (1825–1895), sanitary engineer

David J. Eveleigh.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Engineering (General). 1905 words.

Shanks, John (1825–1895), sanitary engineer, was born in Stonefield, Paisley, Renfrewshire, on 22 December 1825, the eldest son of William Shanks, a handloom weaver and later a church...