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Active Offender Research

Scott Jacques.

in Criminology

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 6538 words.

Before criminology became obsessed with quantitative research, many of the field’s insights about crime came from offenders’ “own stories,” although this work typically used accounts from...

Adolescent Victimization

Marie Skubak Tillyer and Marissa E. Hinton.

in Criminology

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4715 words.

Because not all crimes are reported to law enforcement, researchers have generally used survey data collected from adolescents to better understand the nature, patterns, causes, and...

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Joan A. Reid.

in Criminology

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7473 words.

Substantial bodies of research from various fields have consistently documented the long-term, detrimental effects of childhood maltreatment and trauma. In the health science field, a body...

The Aging Prison Population

Samuel Scaggs.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 8340 words.

Since the 1980s, the proportion of state and federal prisoners who are older has experienced unprecedented changes to the extent that they currently represent the fastest-growing inmate...

Airport and Airline Security

Peter Adey.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 9562 words.

The airport is a site where the sorting and effective differentiation of the (global) mobilities of people and things take place. It is a nexus in a node of a network or system of...

Alcohol and Drug Prohibition

Wayne Hall and Sarah Yeates.

in Criminology

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7536 words.

In standard reference works such as the Oxford English Dictionary, a general definition of prohibition as “the action or act of forbidding” is quickly followed by a definition of...

Alcohol Use, Policy and Crime

Robert Nash Parker and Kevin McCaffree.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 14427 words.

The topic of alcohol use in society is multifaceted and dynamic. Consciousness-altering substance use can be found in the archaeological record dating back to the very beginning of human...

Alfred Blumstein

Robert Brame.

in Criminology

P ublished online July 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 5640 words.

Alfred “Al” Blumstein’s career contributions stand at the intersection of operations research, policy analysis, and criminology. A member of the National Academy of Engineering who has...

Alt-Right Gangs and White Power Youth Groups

Matthew Valasik and Shannon E. Reid.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 8682 words.

Gang scholars for the last three decades have explicitly excluded youths who are active, overtly or implicitly, in white supremacy groups (e.g., neo-Nazis; racist skinheads; white...

Anomie

Eric P. Baumer.

in Criminology

P ublished online February 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 5378 words.

The term anomie has been widely used for the past several centuries to describe societal conditions. Although it has been defined and applied in different ways throughout history, it has...

Arson

Rebekah Doley.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 2651 words.

The psychology of deliberate firesetting has been relatively under-researched until recently. Challenges have included a range of synonyms (e.g., fire-bug, arsonist, pyromaniac) used to...

Bail and Pretrial Detention

Celesta Albonetti.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7841 words.

Determining the accused pretrial status requires tracing the interplay between legislative and case law attempts to define the legal function of bail. The perennial concern has been the...

Biosocial Criminology

John Paul Wright.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4994 words.

Biological and genetic processes are believed to underlie many of the individual traits associated with persistent criminal conduct. Personality factors, such as neuroticism, mental...

Blackmail

Brian Francis, Moira Peelo and Keith Soothill.

in Criminology

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 6332 words.

Blackmail is a term that is widely known through fiction and popular culture as an illegal means of gaining money or leverage by threats to reveal knowledge. Criminologically and legally,...

Black's Theory of Law and Social Control

Bradley Campbell.

in Criminology

P ublished online April 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 11835 words.

Developed by Donald Black and since extended and applied to various subjects by a number of scholars, Black’s theory of law and social control addresses a phenomenon relevant to specialists...

Body Cameras and Policing

Bryce Elling Peterson and Daniel S. Lawrence.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Criminal Justice; Policing; Crime Prevention. 12300 words.

Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are small devices that police officers can affix to their person—in a head-, shoulder-, or chest-mounted position—that can audio and video record their interactions...

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Boot Camps and Shock Incarceration Programs

Ojmarrh Mitchell and Fawn T. Ngo.

in Criminology

P ublished online March 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7304 words.

Correctional boot camps, also known as “shock incarceration” programs, are correctional programs modeled after military basic training. Just like basic training, boot camps emphasize drill...

Bystander Intervention

David F. Urschler and Peter Fischer.

in Criminology

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 10079 words.

In March 1964, a man chased a woman in Kew Gardens, Queens, New York City. After he caught her, he stabbed her, raped her, left, returned, stabbed her again, and, finally, left her to die...

Capital Punishment

Richard Rosenfeld.

in Criminology

P ublished online December 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 7127 words.

The death penalty is one of the most contentious issues in criminology and public policy, especially in the United States, which retains the death penalty and continues to execute capital...

Cesare Lombroso

Matt DeLisi.

in Criminology

P ublished online June 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice; Criminal Justice; Criminology. 4469 words.

No one in the history of criminology has a reputation like Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso was a multifaceted scholar who looked at virtually every aspect of the lives, minds, bodies, attitudes,...