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Access to Finance: An Unfinished Agenda

Thorsten Beck and Asli Demirgüç-Kunt.

in The World Bank Economic Review

October 2008; p ublished online November 2008 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Institutions and Services; Banking; Economic Development. 5523 words.

Recent data compilations show that many poor and nonpoor people in many developing countries face a high degree of financial exclusion and high barriers in access to finance. Theory and...

Access to Financial Services: Measurement, Impact, and Policies

Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirgüç-Kunt and Patrick Honohan.

in The World Bank Research Observer

February 2009; p ublished online February 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Microeconomics; Financial Institutions and Services; Banking; Economic Development. 9503 words.

In many developing countries less than half the population has access to formal financial services, and in most of Africa less than one in five households has access. Lack of access to...

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The African Financial Development and Financial Inclusion Gaps

Franklin Allen, Elena Carletti, Robert Cull, Jun ‘QJ’ Qian, Lemma Senbet and Patricio Valenzuela.

in Journal of African Economies

November 2014; p ublished online June 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Institutions and Services; Household Analysis; Economic Development. 8314 words.

This paper investigates the African financial development and financial inclusion gaps relative to other peer developing countries. Using a set of variables related to financial development...

Age, seniority and labour costs: lessons from the Finnish IT revolution

Francesco Daveri and Mika Maliranta.

in Economic Policy

January 2007; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 22547 words.

The bad labour market performance of the workforce over 50 indicates that an aged workforce is often a burden for firms. Our paper seeks to investigate whether and why this is the case by...

Ageing and unused capacity in Europe: is there an early retirement trap?

Viola Angelini, Agar Brugiavini and Guglielmo Weber.

in Economic Policy

July 2009; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 16832 words.

We address the issue of how early retirement may interact with limited use of financial markets in producing financial hardship later in life, when some risks (such as long-term care) are...

Agricultural Decisions after Relaxing Credit and Risk Constraints

Dean Karlan, Robert Osei, Isaac Osei-Akoto and Christopher Udry.

in The Quarterly Journal of Economics

May 2014; p ublished online February 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Development; Design of Experiments; Production and Organizations; Agricultural Economics; Intertemporal Choice and Growth; Insurance. 19024 words.

The investment decisions of small-scale farmers in developing countries are conditioned by their financial environment. Binding credit market constraints and incomplete insurance can limit...

The Americanization of European football

Thomas Hoehn and Stefan Szymanski.

in Economic Policy

April 1999; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 0 words.

SUMMARY

European football The structure of leagues and revenue sharing

Will European football keep leagues open, or adopt the American system of...

Analysis of spreads in the dollar/euro and deutschemark/dollar foreign exchange markets

Charles Goodhart, Ryan Love, Richard Payne and Dagfinn Rime.

in Economic Policy

October 2002; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 6711 words.

Forex markets and the euro

Dollar spreads: mark versus euro

We compute bid-ask spreads for the dollar/euro exchange rate market and find them to be substantially larger...

Anatomy of employment growth

Pietro Garibaldi and Paolo Mauro.

in Economic Policy

April 2002; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 17626 words.

This paper studies net employment growth across 21 OECD economies since 1980, focusing on the wide range of experiences within the European Union. The initial composition of employment...

Are aid agencies improving?

William Easterly.

in Economic Policy

October 2007; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 20235 words.

The record of the aid agencies over time seems to indicate weak evidence of progress in response to learning from experience, new knowledge, or changes in political climate. The few...

Are contributions to public pension programmes a tax on employment?

Richard Disney.

in Economic Policy

July 2004; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 17444 words.

Many studies describe the potentially adverse impact on employment of the payroll costs of financing public pension programmes. Conventionally, empirical studies treat contributions to...

The arms trade

Paul Levine and Ron Smith.

in Economic Policy

October 1997; p ublished online November 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 0 words.

SUMMARY

The arms trade Winners and losers

The arms trade is highly controversial and raises difficult policy issues. The controversies tend to...

Assessing China's exchange rate regime

Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei.

in Economic Policy

July 2007; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 20980 words.

The IMF Articles of Agreement forbid a country from manipulating its currency for unfair advantage. The US Treasury has been legally required since 1988 to report to Congress biannually...

Assessing the fiscal stance in the European Union and the United States, 1970–2011

Vito Polito and Michael Wickens.

in Economic Policy

October 2011; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 18820 words.

The huge increases in debt-GDP ratios following the 2007–2009 global financial crisis, which are unprecedented except in times of war, has focused attention on the viability of the fiscal...

Austerity in 2009–13

Alberto Alesina, Omar Barbiero, Carlo Favero, Francesco Giavazzi and Matteo Paradisi.

in Economic Policy

July 2015; p ublished online July 2015 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 21115 words.

The conventional wisdom is (i) that fiscal austerity was the main culprit for the recessions experienced by many countries, especially in Europe, since 2010 and (ii) that this round of...

Austria in the European Union: dynamic gains from integration and distributional implications

Christian Keuschnigg and Wilhelm Kohler.

in Economic Policy

April 1996; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 0 words.

Summary

Austria in the European Union

Dynamic gains from integration and distributional implications

This article proposes to measure the...

Awarding telecom licences: the recent European experience

Tilman Börgers and Christian Dustmann.

in Economic Policy

April 2003; p ublished online July 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 23434 words.

This paper analyses the procedures used by different European countries for awarding spectrum licences to potential operators of third generation (3G) mobile telephone networks. We contrast...

Bank bias in Europe: effects on systemic risk and growth

Sam Langfield and Marco Pagano.

in Economic Policy

January 2016; p ublished online January 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 24291 words.

Europe’s financial structure has become strongly bank-based–far more so than in other economies. We document that an increase in the size of the banking system relative to equity and...

Bank lending and monetary transmission in the euro area

Roberto A. De Santis and Paolo Surico.

in Economic Policy

July 2013; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 12777 words.

To what extent does the availability of credit depend on monetary policy? And, does this relationship vary with bank characteristics? Based on a common source of balance sheet data for the...

The bank lending channel: lessons from the crisis

Leonardo Gambacorta and David Marques-Ibanez.

in Economic Policy

April 2011; p ublished online August 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity; Financial Regulation; Health, Education, and Welfare; Labour and Demographic Economics; Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Public Economics; Regional Government Analysis. 18327 words.

The 2007–2010 financial crisis highlighted the central role of financial intermediaries’ stability in buttressing a smooth transmission of credit to borrowers. While results from the years...