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Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun (1922–1976), prime minister of Malaysia

Cheah Boon Kheng.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1120 words.

Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun (1922–1976), prime minister of Malaysia, was born in Pulau Keladi in the state of Pahang (a Malay state then under British ‘protection’), on 11 March 1922....

Abell, Sir George Edmond Brackenbury (1904–1989), administrator in India

Roger Ellis.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 858 words.

Abell, Sir George Edmond Brackenbury (1904–1989), administrator in India, was born on 22 June 1904 in Sanderstead, Surrey, the eldest in the family of two sons and two daughters of George...

Abercromby, James (1707–1775), colonial agent and politician

Ian K. R. Archer.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; UK Politics. 868 words.

Abercromby, James (1707–1775), colonial agent and politician, was baptized on 24 August 1708 at Alloa, Clackmannanshire, the third son of Alexander Abercromby (d. 1753), MP for...

Abercromby, Sir Robert (1740?–1827), army officer and administrator in India

Raymond Callahan.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1225 words.

Abercromby, Sir Robert (1740?–1827), army officer and administrator in India, son of George Abercromby (1705–1800) of Tullibody and his wife, Mary, née Dundas (d. 1767), was baptized at his...

Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator

Philip J. Jaggar.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Education. 928 words.

Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia. From a Jewish background, he studied at...

Acheson, Archibald, second earl of Gosford (1776–1849), governor-in-chief of British North America

T. B. Browning.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1394 words.

Acheson, Archibald, second earl of Gosford (1776–1849), governor-in-chief of British North America, was born on 1 August 1776, the eldest son of Arthur Acheson, first earl of Gosford, and...

Adam, John (1779–1825), administrator in India

Katherine Prior.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 578 words.

Adam, John (1779–1825), administrator in India, was the eldest son of William Adam (1751–1839) and Eleanora Elphinstone (1749–1808), second daughter of Charles, tenth Baron Elphinstone. His...

Adam, William Patrick (1823–1881), politician and administrator in India

Sidney Lee.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; UK Politics. 623 words.

Adam, William Patrick (1823–1881), politician and administrator in India, was the elder son of Admiral Sir Charles Adam (1780–1853) of Blairadam, Kinross. His mother was Elizabeth (d....

Adams, John

William Pencak.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; State and Local Government; Diplomatic History; International Relations. 5896 words.

Adams, John (19 October 1735–04 July 1826), second president of the United States, diplomat, and political theorist, was born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, the son of John Adams...

Adams, Samuel

Pauline Maier.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; State and Local Government. 5039 words.

Adams, Samuel (27 September 1722–02 October 1803), revolutionary politician, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Massachusetts governor, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the...

Agnew, Patrick Alexander Vans (1822–1848), East India Company servant

Katherine Prior.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 594 words.

Agnew, Patrick Alexander Vans (1822–1848), East India Company servant, was born at Raipur in Chhattisgarh in central India on 21 April 1822, the second son of Patrick Vans Agnew...

Ainsworth, John (1864–1946), colonial administrator

Robert M. Maxon.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 867 words.

Ainsworth, John (1864–1946), colonial administrator, was born at 29 Lyme Street, Chorlton upon Medlock, Lancashire, on 16 June 1864, the son of John Dawson Ainsworth, commercial traveller,...

Aitchison, Sir Charles Umpherston (1832–1896), administrator in India

A. J. Arbuthnot.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1258 words.

Aitchison, Sir Charles Umpherston (1832–1896), administrator in India, born in Edinburgh on 20 May 1832, was the son of Hugh Aitchison of that city, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of...

Alexander, Abraham

Converse D. Clowse.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Politics. 1561 words.

Alexander, Abraham (1718–23 April 1786), early leader in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, was born probably in Cecil County, Maryland, the son of Francis Alexander (mother’s name...

Alexander, Du Pre, second earl of Caledon (1777–1839), politician and colonial administrator

P. J. Jupp.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2006 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 2951 words.

Alexander, Du Pre, second earl of Caledon (1777–1839), politician and colonial administrator, was born on 14 December 1777, the only son of James Alexander (1730–1802), first earl of...

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar

Khizar Humayun Ansari.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Islam; Religious Studies. 1351 words.

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar, was born on 4 April 1872 in Surat, Gujarat, India. His father, Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh,...

Allen, Ethan

Michael Bellesiles.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; World History. 1330 words.

Allen, Ethan (10 January 1738–12 February 1789), frontier revolutionary leader and author of the first deistic work by an American, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Joseph...

Allen, Levi

Michael A. Bellesiles.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 906 words.

Allen, Levi (16 January 1746–16 December 1801), American Loyalist and free-trade advocate, was born in Cornwall, Connecticut, the son of Joseph Allen and Mary Baker, farmers. Though...

Al-Nahas, Mustafa (1879–1965), prime minister of Egypt

Michael T. Thornhill.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: African Politics; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1706 words.

Al-Nahas, Mustafa (1879–1965), prime minister of Egypt, was born on 15 June 1879 in Samanud, in the Gharbiyya province of Egypt's Nile delta, where his father was a timber merchant. He...

Amherst, William Pitt, first Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773–1857), diplomatist and governor-general of Bengal

Douglas M. Peers.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Diplomatic History; International Relations; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1946 words.

Amherst, William Pitt, first Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773–1857), diplomatist and governor-general of Bengal, was born on 14 January 1773 in Bath, the first of three children of...