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Conclusion: The Future of Democratization

Christian Welzel, Ronald Inglehart, Patrick Bernhagen and Christian W. Haerpfer.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 5528 words.

This chapter summarizes the main insights from the book and sets out the main challenges lying ahead for democracy. It identifies varieties of autocracy and the role of external threats and...

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Conclusion: Toward Total Recall in International Organizations

Heidi Hardt.

in NATO's Lessons in Crisis

May 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 10227 words.

Chapter 8 offers a summary of the findings discussed in earlier chapters and directions for future research. The chapter first reiterates the argument that institutional memory develops in...

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Conventional Citizen Participation

Ian McAllister and Stephen White.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 7789 words.

This chapter examines the most visible and politically important act of conventional citizen participation: turning out to vote in a national election. Patterns of political participation...

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A Decade of Democratic Decline and Stagnation

M. Steven Fish, Jason Wittenberg and Laura Jakli.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 7415 words.

This chapter examines key factors that lead to failed democratization. It first describes five categories of countries: established democracies, established autocracies, robust...

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Defense and Security Policy

Bastien Irondelle, Jean Joana and Frédéric Mérand.

in The Oxford Handbook of French Politics

November 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Article. Subjects: European Union; International Relations. 8521 words.

This chapter examines what the international literature tells us about French security and defense policy, but also what the French case teaches us about this literature. French scholarship...

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Democratic and Undemocratic States

Richard Rose.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 8191 words.

This chapter discusses the distinction between democratic and undemocratic states, noting that it is not only about whether there are elections: it is about whether or not it there is the...

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Democratization

Christian Welzel and Ronald F. Inglehart.

Edited by Christian W. Haerpfer and Patrick Bernhagen.

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Book. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 512 pages.

Democratization introduces the theoretical and practical dimensions of democratization. Focusing on the ‘global wave of democratization’ that has advanced since the early...

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Dilemmas in Design

Heidi Hardt.

in NATO's Lessons in Crisis

May 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 9936 words.

Chapter 3 constitutes the first of four empirical chapters. The chapter describes NATO’s learning infrastructure, explains how the design of such infrastructure constrains knowledge-sharing...

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East Asia

Doh Chull Shin and Rollin F. Tusalem.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 11664 words.

This chapter examines the processes of democratization in East Asia over the past two decades. It first provides a historical background on transitions to democracy in the region before...

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Gender and Democratization

Pamela Paxton and Kristopher Velasco.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 7043 words.

This chapter examines the role of gender in democracy and democratization. It first considers how gender figures in definitions of democracy, noting that while women may appear to be...

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Germany’s Foreign Policy after the End of the Cold War

Klaus Brummer and Kai Oppermann.

P ublished online April 2016 .

Article. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 11508 words.

Germany is increasingly expected to behave like a “normal” international actor, that is, one who assumes international responsibility in accordance with its international stature and whose...

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The Global Wave of Democratization

John Markoff and Daniel Burridge.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 10096 words.

This chapter focuses on the great wave of democracy that had touched every continent. In the early 1970s, Western Europe was home to several non-democratic countries, most of Latin America...

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Hear No Evil

Heidi Hardt.

in NATO's Lessons in Crisis

May 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 9324 words.

Chapter 5, the third empirical chapter, provides evidence of specific processes in the development of NATO’s institutional memory. The first part of the chapter describes process tracing as...

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Institutional Design in New Democracies

Matthijs Bogaards.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 6764 words.

This chapter focuses on electoral systems and institutional design in new democracies. It first compares Maurice Duverger’s electoral laws with those of Giovanni Sartori before discussing...

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Intelligence and the European Union

Richard J. Aldrich.

in The Oxford Handbook of the European Union

August 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; European Union; International Relations. 7899 words.

This article begins by examining recent intelligence developments within the EU. Its initial focus is institutional, asking why the intelligence activities of the EU are relatively weak,...

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The International Context

Hakan Yilmaz.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 10972 words.

This chapter examines the major theoretical approaches to the issue of the international context of democratization. In particular, it considers democratization by means of ‘convergence’,...

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Introduction

Christian Welzel, Ronald Inglehart, Patrick Bernhangen and Christian W. Haerpfer.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 7262 words.

This chapter introduces the new edition of Democratization against the backdrop of a new pessimism about Democracy. It anticipates the major themes pursued in the book by discussing...

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Justice and Home Affairs

Jörg Monar.

in The Oxford Handbook of the European Union

August 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; European Union; International Relations. 6825 words.

The term ‘justice and home affairs’ (JHA) denotes a policy-making domain of the EU covering asylum and immigration policy, external border management, judicial cooperation in both civil and...

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Latin America

Andrea Oelsner and Mervyn Bain.

in Democratization

December 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 11456 words.

This chapter examines the main features of the undemocratic regimes that were in power in Latin America from the late 1960s, along with the democratization processes that followed since the...

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Lessons in Failure

Heidi Hardt.

in NATO's Lessons in Crisis

May 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations; European Union. 11334 words.

Chapter 1 introduces the subject of institutional memory of strategic errors, discusses why it matters for international organizations (IOs) that engage in crisis management and reviews the...

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