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Catholic Church Advocacy and the Affordable Care Act

Jeanine Kraybill.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 10439 words.

The American Catholic Church has a long history in health care. At the turn of 19th century, Catholic nuns began developing the United States’ first hospital and health care systems,...

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Constitutional Law

Axel Tschentscher.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online June 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 7464 words.

Research on constitutional law has come in different waves mirroring the development of states in recent decades. While the decolonization period of the 1960s still kept the old ties of...

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Courts in Latin American Politics

Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Political Behaviour; Politics and Law. 10317 words.

In the aftermath of the third wave of democratization, Latin American courts left behind decades of subservience, conservatism, and irrelevance to become central political players. They now...

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Democratic Backsliding in the European Union

Nick Sitter and Elisabeth Bakke.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; Political Economy; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 8799 words.

Democratic backsliding in European Union (EU) member states is not only a policy challenge for the EU, but also a potential existential crisis. If the EU does too little to deal with member...

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The Electoral System of Israel

Matthew S. Shugart.

in The Oxford Handbook of Israeli Politics and Society

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Regional Political Studies; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 8032 words.

The electoral system of Israel is an “extreme” example of proportional representation because of its use of a single nationwide district. This feature has been a constant since 1949, while...

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The Evolution of Same-Sex Marriage Policy in the United States

Sarah Poggione.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Politics and Law; Political Behaviour. 9335 words.

On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that same-sex couples have the right to marry, and newspapers across the country declared that gay couples could now exercise this right...

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The Executive Branch in Israel

Ofer Kenig.

in The Oxford Handbook of Israeli Politics and Society

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Regional Political Studies; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 7555 words.

As in other parliamentary democracies, the Israeli government is dependent on the confidence of parliament. Israel is a country with a diverse society, divided by multidimensional political...

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Future Scenarios of the European Union

Brigid Laffan.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online September 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 9131 words.

Debate on the future of the European Union (EU) never abates because the Union is a polity characterized by considerable change in its internal and external environment. Scenarios are an...

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Global Actors: Networks, Elites, and Institutions

Mikael Rask Madsen and Mikkel Jarle Christensen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online October 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Political Institutions; Political Behaviour; Politics and Law; International Relations. 10177 words.

Over the past several decades scholars have intensively debated what factors drive globalization. Answers have ranged from the emergence of the information society and the global economy to...

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Human Rights, the Rule of Law, and Democracy

Tobias Berger and Milli Lake.

in The Oxford Handbook of Governance and Limited Statehood

March 2018; p ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Theory; Politics and Law; Political Institutions. 10174 words.

This chapter examines the promotion of human rights, the rule of law, and democracy by external actors in areas of limited statehood. It begins with the definition of key terms and a brief...

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Israel and the European Union

Sharon Pardo.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; International Relations; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 8605 words.

Israeli-European Union (EU) relations have consisted of a number of conflicting trends that have resulted in the emergence of a highly problematic and volatile relationship: one...

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The Judicial Branch in Israel

Menachem Hofnung and Mohammed S. Wattad.

in The Oxford Handbook of Israeli Politics and Society

P ublished online September 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Regional Political Studies; Politics and Law; Political Institutions. 5414 words.

The contemporary perception of Israel’s judiciary as an independent branch does not coincide with Israel’s first government’s perception after establishing the first Supreme Court. To a...

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The Judicial Process and Public Policy

Kevin T. McGuire.

in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions

June 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Politics and Law; Political Institutions. 8707 words.

This article considers several issues that are related to the judicial process. It aims to shed some light on the policy capacities that the courts possess, as well as the impact of their...

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The Judicialization of Politics Disentangled

Rebecca Hamlin and Gemma Sala.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online May 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 12940 words.

The judicialization of politics is an expression that has been widely used in the fields of comparative law and judicial politics alike since it first emerged in the 1980s. Yet, despite its...

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The Judiciary and Judicial Reform

Patricia E. Salkin and Amy Lavine.

in The Oxford Handbook of New York State Government and Politics

September 2012; p ublished online December 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; US Politics; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 12244 words.

This article describes the judiciary and judicial reform in New York. Reform has been ongoing, and in recent years the courts in New York have evolved into a unified system to manage...

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The Judiciary and the Role of Law

Mathew D. McCubbins and Daniel B. Rodriguez.

in The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy

June 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics and Law; Political Institutions. 6276 words.

This article discusses the judiciary and the role of law. It talks about the implications of the approach for issues in statutory interpretation, and then examines the relationship between...

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The Judiciary and the Rule of Law in Africa

Charlotte Heyl.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 11154 words.

In a liberal conception of democracy, courts play an important role in facilitating the rule of law by controlling the abidance to rules and by holding the political branches of government...

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The Judiciary in Nigeria Since 1999

Patrick Ukata.

in The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics

October 2018; p ublished online November 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Regional Political Studies; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 8292 words.

Since May 1999, the Nigerian judiciary has increasingly been called upon to play a more critical role in interpreting the constitution, ensuring the enforcement of the rule of law and the...

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Jurdain, Ignatius (bap. 1561, d. 1640), politician and civic reformer

Mark Stoyle.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Political Institutions; Public Administration; Politics and Law; UK Politics. 1038 words.

Jurdain, Ignatius (bap. 1561, d. 1640), politician and civic reformer, was baptized on 17 August 1561 at St Michael's Church, Lyme Regis, one of the eight children of William Jurdain of...

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Catherine Boone.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Economy; Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 7545 words.

Land-related disputes and land conflicts are sometimes politicized in elections in African countries, but this is usually not the case. Usually, land-related conflict is highly localized,...

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