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Bunche, Ralph Johnson

Thomas Clarkin.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Diplomatic History; International Relations; Politics and Law. 1192 words.

Bunche, Ralph Johnson (07 August 1904–09 December 1971), scholar and diplomat, was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Fred Bunch, a barber, and Olive Agnes Johnson. His grandmother added...

Citizenship Law as the Foundation for Political Participation in Africa

Bronwen Manby.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law; International Relations. 13853 words.

The question of membership and belonging is widely recognized to have been at the root of many political crises in Africa since independence. The legal frameworks for citizenship were...

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The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems

Mitsuo Matsushita.

in The Oxford Handbook on The World Trade Organization

May 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Political Economy; Politics and Law. 13132 words.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement mechanism has taken great strides towards establishing the rule of law in international trade, that is, a rule-oriented international...

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The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?

Alan O'Neil Sykes.

in The Oxford Handbook on The World Trade Organization

May 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Political Economy; Politics and Law. 11720 words.

What is the purpose of the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement mechanism (DSM)? This seemingly simple question has become a source of considerable academic debate. All...

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The Diverging Theory and Practice of International Law

Leslie Johns.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Politics and Law; International Relations. 10555 words.

Existing theories of international law are largely state-centric. While international cooperation can benefit all, states are often tempted to violate their promises in order to manage...

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Enlargement Policy and European Union Politics

Eli Gateva.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; Politics and Law; International Relations. 13322 words.

Enlargement has always been an essential part of the European integration. Each enlargement round has left its mark on the integration project. However, it was the expansion of the European...

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From International Law and International Relations to Law and World Politics

Christopher A. Whytock.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Politics and Law; International Relations. 21928 words.

Political scientists—primarily in the discipline’s international relations subfield—have long studied international law. After considering how political scientists and legal scholars define...

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Global Actors: Networks, Elites, and Institutions

Mikael Rask Madsen and Mikkel Jarle Christensen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online October 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Political Institutions; Political Behaviour; Politics and Law; International Relations. 10177 words.

Over the past several decades scholars have intensively debated what factors drive globalization. Answers have ranged from the emergence of the information society and the global economy to...

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The Global Politics of Healthcare Reform

Solomon Benatar, David Sanders and Stephen Gill.

in The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Public Policy; Public Administration; Comparative Politics; Politics and Law; International Relations. 10882 words.

This chapter analyses the political influences that shaped reform of healthcare service provision and financing during four decades of neoliberal capitalist dominance, with its emphasis on...

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The Global Spread of Constitutional Review

Tom Ginsburg.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Politics and Law. 7838 words.

Constitutional review, the power of courts to strike down incompatible legislation and administrative action, is an innovation of the American constitutional order that has become a norm of...

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The Globalization of the Law

Bryant G. Garth.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Politics and Law. 8787 words.

The “globalization of the law” became a central topic in legal and social science scholarship in the 1980s. The topic refers to “legalization” diffused into two related kinds of domains....

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The International Criminal Court in Africa and the Politics of International Justice

Phil Clark.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law; International Relations. 13240 words.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) has generated considerable controversy since it came into force in 2002, principally because of its overriding focus on African conflict situations...

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International Law and International Relations

Beth Simmons.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Politics and Law. 9112 words.

International law is a set of rules intended to bind states in their relationships with each other. It is largely designed to apply to states, both to constrain (the laws of war) and to...

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Israel and the European Union

Sharon Pardo.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; International Relations; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 8605 words.

Israeli-European Union (EU) relations have consisted of a number of conflicting trends that have resulted in the emergence of a highly problematic and volatile relationship: one...

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The Judiciary and the Rule of Law in Africa

Charlotte Heyl.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 11154 words.

In a liberal conception of democracy, courts play an important role in facilitating the rule of law by controlling the abidance to rules and by holding the political branches of government...

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Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Catherine Boone.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Economy; Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 7545 words.

Land-related disputes and land conflicts are sometimes politicized in elections in African countries, but this is usually not the case. Usually, land-related conflict is highly localized,...

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Legal Perspectives

José E. Alvarez.

in The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations

June 2018; p ublished online August 2018 .

Article. Subjects: International Relations; Political Institutions; Politics and Law. 12325 words.

This chapter surveys how international legal scholars have catalogued and sought to explain the legal impact of the UN even though its political and judicial organs have not been delegated...

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Lithuania and the European Union

Ramūnas Vilpišauskas.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Politics and Law; International Relations. 14403 words.

For Lithuania, the geopolitical motive to join the European Union (EU) in order to prevent a repetition of the 1940s occupation has been as important as a motive to “return to Europe.” This...

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The Politics of Language Education in Africa

Russell H. Kaschula and Michael M. Kretzer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 8516 words.

Language policies in sub-Saharan African nations emerge out of specific political, historical, socioeconomic, and linguistic conditions. Education plays a crucial role for all spheres of...

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The Role of International Law in Global Governance

Walter F. Baber and Robert V. Bartlett.

in The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society

August 2011; p ublished online January 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Politics and Law; International Relations. 6699 words.

International law is a collection of agreements that represent the will and consent of nation-states with respect to the rules that govern their relationships. Treaties are the increasingly...

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