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Alfred, Prince, duke of Edinburgh (1844–1900), duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, naval officer, and son of Queen Victoria

John Van der Kiste.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; British History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History. 1742 words.

Alfred, Prince, duke of Edinburgh (1844–1900), duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, naval officer, and son of Queen Victoria, was born Alfred Ernest Albert at Windsor Castle on 6 August 1844, the...

The Allure of Independence

Anand Toprani.

in Oil and the Great Powers

April 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Economic History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History. 18596 words.

This chapter discusses the origins of Britain’s postwar oil strategy, which aimed at making Britain independent of imports from other great powers, especially the United States. It begins...

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ballot

Overview page. Subjects: European History — Politics.

Secret voting; a vote conducted by this method. Voting by dropping a pebble (psephos—hence psephology) into an urn was an invention of ancient Greek democrats, resurrected in the eighteenth...

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Billings, Joseph (1758–1806), explorer and hydrographer in Russia

John H. Appleby.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; European History; Maps and Map-making; Oceanography and Hydrology; World History. 1481 words.

Billings, Joseph (1758–1806), explorer and hydrographer in Russia, was born in 1758 at Turnham Green, Middlesex, according to ship musters; parish church registers confirm the birth of...

Borough, Stephen (1525–1584), explorer and naval administrator

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; European History; Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare. 2667 words.

Borough, Stephen (1525–1584), explorer and naval administrator, was born on 25 September 1525 at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, the elder son of Walter Borough (1494–1548)...

Borough, William (bap. 1536, d. 1598), explorer and naval administrator

R. C. D. Baldwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: World History; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas; European History; Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare. 2473 words.

Borough, William (bap. 1536, d. 1598), explorer and naval administrator, was born at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, to Walter Borough (1494–1548) and Mary (née Dough) and...

bull-baiting

Overview page. Subjects: European History — Sport and Leisure.

Was probably introduced to Ireland from England, where it had been a popular pastime at least from the 13th century. Bulls, sometimes mutilated and invariably tethered, were baited by both...

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Cambridge, Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George, earl of Athlone [formerly Prince Alexander of Teck] (1874–1957), army officer and governor-general of South Africa

Bede Clifford.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: European History; Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; British History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 1753 words.

Cambridge, Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George, earl of Athlone [formerly Prince Alexander of Teck] (1874–1957), army officer and governor-general of South Africa, was born...

camogie

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — European History.

Essentially a women's version of hurling, was invented by female members of the Gaelic League. It was first played publicly at Navan, Co. Meath, in 1904. Unlike other Gaelic sports ...

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Conclusion

Vanessa Schwartz.

in Modern France

October 2011; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945); European History; Political Geography. 691 words.

The ‘Conclusion’ summarizes what can be learned of post-Revolution France. The realities of modern France are more complex than nationalist pageants show. Power comes to those who unite...

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Conclusion

Anand Toprani.

in Oil and the Great Powers

April 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Economic History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History. 10303 words.

The shift from coal to oil as the developed world’s dominant source of energy was the most significant change in energy-consumption patterns of the twentieth century. It had profound...

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The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?

Hugh D Clout.

in The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History

May 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: History; European History; Contemporary History (Post 1945); Economic History. 8756 words.

By the dawn of the twenty-first century, Europe's agriculture had been reshaped dramatically, since policy makers viewed rural space as more than a resource base of crops, animal products,...

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D'Auvergne, Philippe (bap. 1754, d. 1816), naval officer and claimant to the duchy of Bouillon

James Falkner.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; European History. 1635 words.

D'Auvergne, Philippe (bap. 1754, d. 1816), naval officer and claimant to the duchy of Bouillon, was born in St Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands, and baptized at St Helier parish church on 13...

Double or Nothing

Anand Toprani.

in Oil and the Great Powers

April 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Economic History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History. 11663 words.

This chapter places oil at the center of the Third Reich’s plans for the economic exploitation of the Soviet Union. It begins by reviewing Germany’s preoccupation with the Caucasian...

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Edward [Edward of Woodstock; known as the Black Prince], prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376), heir to the English throne and military commander

Richard Barber.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Irish History; British History; Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500); Military History; Warfare and Defence; European History. 9399 words.

Edward [Edward of Woodstock; known as the Black Prince], prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376), heir to the English throne and military commander, was the eldest son of Edward III...

Edward, prince of Saxe-Weimar (1823–1902), army officer

H. M. Vibart.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: European History; Military History; Land Forces and Warfare. 704 words.

Edward, prince of Saxe-Weimar (1823–1902), army officer, was the eldest son of Bernard, duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1792–1862), and his wife, Princess Ida (1794–1852), daughter of George,...

Elton, John (d. 1751), merchant and adventurer

E. I. Carlyle.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; World History; Travel and Holiday; European History; Maps and Map-making. 740 words.

Elton, John (d. 1751), merchant and adventurer, is of unknown origins. He arrived in Russia in 1732 to present to the Russian government a memorandum for finding a northern sea passage to...

Ernest (1830–1904), prince of Leiningen and naval officer

L. G. C. Laughton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Naval Forces and Warfare; European History. 861 words.

Ernest (1830–1904), prince of Leiningen and naval officer, was born Ernst Leopold Victor Karl August Joseph Emich at Amorbach, Bavaria, on 9 November 1830. He was the elder son of Charles,...

European Sexualities in the Age of Total War

Dagmar Herzog.

in The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945

May 2016; p ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945); European History; Gender and Sexuality. 7898 words.

This chapter explores transformations in European sexual mores and practices in the era of the two world wars. It pays particular attention to the contradictory dynamics of the interwar...

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France hurtles into the future

in Modern France

October 2011; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945); European History; Political Geography. 6051 words.

‘France hurtles into the future’ charts France's contributions to technological development. The Eiffel Tower was a statement of France's commitment to the ideals of the Enlightenment. The...

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