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abandonment

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

1 Negligent or malicious breaking off of an asymmetrical or dependency relationship, as between physician and patient or between parent(s) and dependent child(ren).

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abatement

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology — Environmental Science.

Reduction or preferably elimination of public health hazards or nuisances such as environmental pollutants, noxious smells, excessive noise. Abatement is often an important activity in...

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abiotic transformation

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

Literally, a biologically important chemical transformation in the absence of living organisms. An example is formation of stratospheric ozone from oxygen, catalyzed by solar ultraviolet...

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aborigines

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

The indigenous inhabitants of a colonized country. They often have high incidence and prevalence rates of multiple social and health problems and reduced life expectancy when their habitat,...

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abscissa

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology — Chemistry.

The horizontal or X axis of a graph; the vertical or Y axis is the ordinate, and the two axes are the Cartesian coordinates.

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absolute risk

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

The probability that a specified event will occur in a specified population, in contrast to the relative risk of the event, which compares absolute risks in different populations.

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absolute risk approach

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

A disease-control method based on the observation that proportional reduction in risk for given absolute reductions in risk factors is independent of the level of the risk factor. For...

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abstinence

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

Refraining from action, continence, particularly refraining from activities regarded as pleasurable by those who indulge, including sexual activity, drinking alcohol, and smoking. Some...

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academic freedom

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology — History of the Americas.

The right of scholars to study and report on any problem that their curiosity and conscience dictate, without fear of retribution. This right may be infringed when studies are paid for by...

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acceptable risk

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

A risk that has significantly smaller and/or fewer detrimental consequences than the potential hazards of alternative courses of action. Environmental regulations such as those of the US...

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access to information

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

The process of locating and using information gathered by public officials and often also those in the private sector. One characteristic of an open democratic society is that citizens are...

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accessibility

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

Openness, the quality of being approachable, available in practice, to clients, users of a health care system. Accessibility is one of the criteria used to assess the quality of a health...

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accident

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

An unplanned, unanticipated event leading to damage, injury, or death, commonly classified according to the site of occurrence (traffic, workplace, domestic, recreational). For such events...

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accommodation

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

1 The living space of a person, family, or group of people.

2 Variation in the aperture of the iris and the shape of the lens of the eye induced by ocular...

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accountability

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

The state of being answerable for decisions and actions; a criterion that can be used as an indicator of how well a health care system functions. In clinical and public health practice,...

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accreditation

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

A process of formal recognition by a professional external body whereby an educational establishment or programme meets certain agreed quality standards.

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acid aerosol

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology — Environmental Science.

Acidic liquid or solid particles small enough to become airborne. High concentrations can irritate the lungs and have been associated with respiratory diseases like asthma.

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acid precipitation

Overview page. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — Public Health and Epidemiology.

(mist, fog, rain) Syn: acid deposition. Atmospheric acid aerosols are removed by wet deposition (rain, snow, mist, fog) or dry deposition of particles on vegetation. This is harmful to...

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acid-fast stain

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

Special staining solution such as Ziehl-Neelsen stain that is used to detect the presence of mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in sputum, other body fluids, or tissues;...

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acroosteolysis

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

A condition caused by prolonged occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, in which bone density is pathologically reduced in the extremities, i.e., fingers and toes. It may also be...

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