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A. F. Kashevarov

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1809–1866),

one of the outstanding Creole explorers of Russian America—a fine example of what could be achieved by a gifted Creole commoner, even under the harsh limitations of...

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A. J. Foyt

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(1935– )

US motor racing driver, who has won more races and set more records in many different types of cars and events than any other driver.

Foyt was born in Houston...

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A. J. Muste

Overview page. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution — Military History.

(1885–1967), minister, labor organizer, antiwar activist.

Born in the Netherlands, Muste studied at theological seminaries in the United States and became a minister in the Dutch...

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A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr

Overview page. Subjects: United States History.

(b. 25 February 1928; d. 14 December 1998),

legal scholar, author, historian, civil rights advocate, and prominent federal judge. Brought up in humble circumstances in Trenton, New...

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A. Philip Randolph

Overview page. Subjects: United States History.

(1889–1979), union head and civil rights leader.

A socialist, Asa Philip Randolph saw economic empowerment as the key to African-American advancement, a philosophy he espoused in...

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Aachen

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

(town, palace) West central German town, known for its hot springs. Aachen’s significance is linked to Charlemagne, who created a Carolingian palace complex there, where he was buried....

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Aagje Deken

Overview page. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945).

(1741–1804), Dutch woman of letters.

Deken was the author, in close collaboration with Betje Wolff-Bekker, of closely observed epistolary novels in Dutch, among them De Historie...

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Aaland Islands

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

Some 6,500 islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, between Finland and Sweden. They were part of Sweden until 1809, when, together with Finland, they were annexed by Russia. After the collapse of...

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Aaron Arrowsmith

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1750–1823),

British geographer and cartographer. Aaron Arrowsmith published many fine maps and atlases based on the best available sources. His maps are of value to the student of...

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Aaron ben Elijah

Overview page. Subjects: Religion — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

(?1328–69).

Karaite Jewish philosopher and exegete. His greatest work was the trilogy Ez Hayyim (Tree of Life), Gan Eden (Garden of Eden), and Keter Torah (Crown of the Law).

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Aaron Henry

Overview page. Subjects: United States History.

(b. 2 July 1922; d. 19 May 1997),

civil rights activist and politician. Born in Dublin, Mississippi, to sharecroppers who encouraged him to get an education, Aaron Henry joined the...

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Aaron Manby

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History.

The first steamship to be built of iron. She was fitted with an engine designed by the Scottish engineer Henry Bell (1767–1830), and made her first voyage in 1822 when she carried...

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Aaron McGruder

Overview page. Subjects: United States History.

Since its creation by Aaron McGruder (b. 29 May 1974), The Boondocks has filled mailbags of newspaper editors across the country with congratulatory and condemning letters. Taking on racial...

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Aaronios

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

(᾽Ααρώνιος, ᾽Ααρών), Byz. noble family descended from the last Bulgarian tsar, John Vladislav, whose wife Maria was granted the title zoste patrikia soon after 1018 and settled in...

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AB

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History — Warfare and Defence.

The abbreviated title for the rating of able seaman, indicating someone able to perform all the duties of a seaman on board ship. In the days of sail it was someone who could hand, reef,...

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AB AKTION

Overview page. Subjects: Second World War.

Nazi codename for the liquidation of Polish intellectuals and other leaders which took place during and after the Polish campaign. It has been estimated that about 3,500 were killed from...

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aback

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History.

The situation of the sails of a square-rigged ship when the yards are trimmed to bring the wind to bear on their forward side. Sails are laid aback purposely to stop a ship's way through...

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abacus schools

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

From the late thirteenth century onwards, many towns and guilds paid an ‘abacus master’ to teach mathematics to a given number of boys who intended to engage in commerce or ...

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abaft

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Maritime History.

Towards the stern of a ship, relative to some other object or position. Abaft the beam is any bearing or direction between the beam of a ship and its stern. See also aft; but ‘abaft’ is...

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abandon

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History.

The order given when a ship is sinking or on fire for the crew to take to the boats and liferafts.

See also lifesaving.

See also lifesaving.

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