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Aaland Islands Case

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

(1920) L.N.O.J. Spec. Supp. No. 3. During the union between Sweden and Finland, the Aaland Islands formed part of the administrative division of Finland, but were ceded to...

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Abdullah El-Erian

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

1920–1982.

Egyptian diplomat and public servant; Professor, Cairo 1943–1961; Member, I.L.C. 1957–1958 and 1962–1978; Judge, I.C.J. 1979–1981. Principal works include Condominium...

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ablegatus

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

An early term, translated into envoy, signifying a diplomatic representative of a level below that of ambassador. See Satow's Guide to Diplomatic Practice (5th ed.), 84.

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absence (in voting)

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

The absence of a State when a vote is taken in an organ of an international organization can raise problems. One authority confidently asserts that ‘[i]t would seem to be ...

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absorption

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

An international organization may cease to exist through absorption by another, e.g., the International Bureau of Education was assimilated into UNESCO in 1969. See Sands and Klein,...

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abstention (in voting)

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

Abstention by a State in voting in an organ of an international organization can give rise to significant legal problems. ‘At one time abstentions were apparently counted as negative votes...

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Abu Dhabi Arbitration

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

Properly styled Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd. v. Sheikh of Abu Dhabi (1951) 18 I.L.R. 144, this proceeding arose out of a dispute as to whether the contract between the ...

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abuse of flag

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

‘It is [a] universally recognised rule [of customary international law] that warships of every state may seize, and bring to a port of their own for punishment, any foreign vessel ...

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Access to, or Anchorage in, the Port of Danzig, of Polish War Vessels Opinion

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

(1931) P.C.I.J., Ser. A/B, No. 43. On 19 September 1931, the League of Nations’ Council asked the P.C.I.J. for an advisory opinion on whether the Danzig–Polish Treaty,...

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accord

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

In French, accord is the equivalent of agrément (or agreement in English). The term is, however, sometimes used in English, signifying an agreement of a greater or less degree of...

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Achille Lauro Incident

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

In October 1985, the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro was seized by four members of the Palestinian Liberation Front, who killed an American citizen, Leon Klinghoffer, and held the...

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acquiescence

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

Express or implied consent. In law, care must be taken to distinguish between mere knowledge of a situation and positive consent to it. For example, in the defence of volenti non fit...

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acquired rights

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

This term is used to connote private rights, acquired either by nationals or by aliens, under the existing law of a given State which, according to traditional international law, do ...

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acquisition of territory

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

‘No unanimity exists with regard to the modes of acquiring territory on the part of members of the international community’: I Oppenheim 678. However, most commentators have identified five...

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act

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

A term ‘usually denoting a multilateral treaty which establishes rules of law or a régime, such as the Act of Algeciras of 7 April 1906 [relating to the affairs of ...

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act of state

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

An act, often involving force, of the executive of a state, or committed by an agent of a sovereign power with its prior approval or subsequent ratification, that affects adversely a person...

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act of war

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

An act by one nation intended to initiate or provoke a war with another nation; an act considered sufficient cause for war.

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ad hoc judge

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

In the International Court of Justice in a contentious case, ‘[i]f the Court includes upon the Bench a judge of the nationality of one of the parties, any other party ...

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administering authority

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

(1) The authority designated by a trusteeship agreement as being responsible for the administration of a U.N. trust territory, and which, under art. 81 of the Charter, ‘may be...

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Administrative Committee on Coordination

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

The Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), formerly the Coordination Committee, was created by ECOSOC Res. 13 (III) of 21 September 1946, which established as its task ‘to ensure...

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