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aberrant decoding

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

Making sense of a message or text in terms of a different code from the one used to encode it (Eco). This can be the basis for cultural misunderstandings: for example, the hand gesture made...

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above-the-line

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies — Marketing.

A term which now has come to mean mass audience advertising and promotional campaigns—for example, to describe campaigns that are targeted at high volumes of consumers in a large number of...

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absent presence

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. In poststructuralist theory, a concept most closely associated with Derrida, for whom it refers to the mythical status of the supposed hub of any system of ideas (see also d...

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absent signifier

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. A particular feature which is perceived as missing from a representation in any medium, especially where it is ‘notable by its absence’, breaching expectations. See also com...

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Academy aperture

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

Named after the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, this is the standard size of the 35-mm aperture plate of film projectors and printers. It produces an aspect ratio (expressed...

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access

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. (accessibility) General availability for use: e.g. the percentage of a given population owning or having access to a communications medium/technology. This was a key issue...

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account handler

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

In advertising and web design agencies, the person who acts as the intermediary between the agency and the client, whose job is to interpret the client's brief and manage the process of its...

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acoustic flow

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

In speech perception, the stream of vocal sounds in which a listener competent in that spoken language is able to identify words.

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active audience theory

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

The view (particularly associated with mass-media usage) that the audiences are not merely passive receptacles for imposed meanings (see hypodermic model) but rather individual audience...

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active picture

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

The television picture visible to the viewer, as distinct from the parts of the image at the top and bottom of the screen visible only to the television engineers. See vertical interval.

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actuality

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. Film of real people going about their everyday lives rather than of actors playing roles (often as segments incorporated into fictional or fictionalized narrative films in...

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ad retention

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

(market research)

The percentage of consumers who recall a specific advertisement or brand even after exposure to the advertising has ceased. Advertisements thus have a residual...

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adaptors

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

In nonverbal communication, acts involving physical manipulation that serve to manage stress or tension. These include self-adaptors (see self-touch); alter-adaptors (adaptations to...

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addition

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. One of the four logical ways in which perception, memory, or representation can transform an experience that is ostensibly merely reproduced. Addition involves adding one or...

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additive colour

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

A process of generating colours by combining red, green, and blue light that is used in film, photography, stage-lighting, and graphic design. Mixing the primary colours of red and green...

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addresser and addressee

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. Alternative terms to sender and receiver originated by Bühler and employed in Jakobson's model of communication. See also encoder.

2. Roles implied...

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adjacency pair

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology — Media Studies.

In conversation analysis, two successive utterances where the second (e.g. an answer) is required by the first (e.g. a question). Compare interchange.

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ADR

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

A process in audio post-production where an actor records lines of dialogue in synchrony with a character's onscreen lip movements.

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adversarial journalism

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

A model of reporting in which the journalist's role involves adopting a stance of opposition and a combative style in order to expose perceived wrongdoings. This style is sometimes...

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advertisement

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies — Bibliography.

An attention-grabbing presentation in any medium which typically serves the marketing function of persuading consumers to purchase a product or service but which may also function to raise...

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