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῾Abbasid Caliphate

Alastair Northedge.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 2828 words.

As the result of a revolution that culminated In 750ce in the defeat of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan

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Abel, Félix-Marie

Jerome o. p. Murphy-O'Connor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 427 words.

of history and geography at the École Biblique et Archéologique Française in Jerusalem from 1905 to 1953. Abel went

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Abila

W. Harold Mare.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1543 words.

city of the Decapolis, located about 15 km (9 mi.) north-northeast of Irbid in northern Jordan. Abila has an occupational

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Abu Ḥamid, Tell

Zeidan A. Kafafi and Genevieve Dollfus.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1105 words.

site located in the Jordan Valley, at 240 m below sea level, on Lisan marl deposits between two small wadis

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Abu Hawam, Tell

William G. Dever.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 502 words.

10-acre mound on the Mediterranean coast near where the Kishon River empties into the bay of Haifa (map reference 151

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Abu Salabikh

J. N. Postgate.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1131 words.

city of the fourth and third millennia in southern Iraq, located at the center of the Mesopotamian alluvial plain between

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Abu Simbel

David O'Connor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 991 words.

colossal temple complex located in the northern Sudan about 200 km (186 mi.) up the Nile from Aswan (22°21′ N,

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Abydos

Diana Craig Patch.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1287 words.

one of ancient Egypt's most sacred sites, located in the eighth Upper Egyptian nome, or province (26°11′ N, 31°55′ E).

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Achziv

M. W. Prausnitz.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1368 words.

site located on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, 15 km (9 mi.) north of Akko and 25 km (15 mi.)

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Adab

Harriet Crawford.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 687 words.

mounds located in a desert area of southern Iraq about 40 km (25 mi.) due east of the modern town

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Aden

David A. Warburton.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 862 words.

since antiquity a major port city (12°46′ N, 45°02′ E) on the Gulf of Aden, now in Yemen. Modern Aden

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Adulis

Marilyn E. Heldman.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 826 words.

important ancient coastal trading center in Ethiopia (now in Eritrea; 15°17′ N, 39°40′ E). Located on the deep Gulf of

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Aegean Islands

A. Bernard Knapp.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 4827 words.

The purpose of this essay is to situate the Aegean Islands in their own social, economic and cultural milieu as

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Agriculture

David C. Hopkins.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 6232 words.

The broad array of activities and knowledge whereby human communities exploit plants to produce food and other crops (fibers and

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Aharoni, Yohanan

Avi Ofer.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 623 words.

Born in Germany, Aharoni went to Palestine as a young man. His character and his desire to explore Israel were

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Ahiram Inscription

Javier Teixidor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 473 words.

The sarcophagus of Ahiram found in Byblos, in Lebanon, by French archaeologists In 1923 is one of the most important

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Ai

Robert E. Cooley.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1465 words.

biblical site located east of Bethel (Gn.12:8, Jos.7:2). Three sites on the perimeter of modern

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῾Ain Dara῾

Ali Abou Assaf.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1063 words.

site located in Syria's ῾Afrin valley, upstream from the ῾Amuq plain, about 67 km (42 mi.) northwest of Aleppo and

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῾Ain Es-Samiyeh

William G. Dever.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 857 words.

an exceptionally strong, perennial spring some 19 km (12 mi.) north-northeast of Jerusalem, at the northeastern foot of Ba῾al Hazor,

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῾Ain Ghazal

Gary O. Rollefson.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1863 words.

site located in the Wadi Zerqa, at the northeast edge of Amman, Jordan (31° 59′ N, 35°58′ E). Highway construction

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