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Aesthetics

Cheng Jiang and Zong-Qi Cai.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online September 2018 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 5961 words.

Chinese aesthetics is largely a grand reconstructive project. The term “Chinese aesthetics,” usually translated as “study of beauty” 美學, did not exist in pre-20th-century Chinese text. The...

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar

Khizar Humayun Ansari.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2012 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Islam; Religious Studies. 1351 words.

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar, was born on 4 April 1872 in Surat, Gujarat, India. His father, Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh,...

Ancestor Worship

Ori Tavor.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 9847 words.

Ancestor worship refers to rituals designed to commemorate and venerate the spirits of one’s deceased forebears. While it is often associated with the Confucian notion of filial piety,...

Ancient Chinese Religion

Mu-chou Poo.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 6905 words.

Religion is a form of activity and mental attitude that helps humans deal with real or imagined extrahuman forces that influence human life. In ancient China from the Neolithic to the...

Anti-Japanese War

Caroline Rose.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 6173 words.

The Anti-Japanese War 抗日战争 (kangRi zhanzheng), or the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japan 中国人民抗日战争 (Zhongguo renmin kangRi zhanzheng), dates from July 1937 to 1945 (or in some...

Ashmun, Jehudi

Salim Yaqub.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Religion and Education. 1133 words.

Ashmun, Jehudi (21 April 1794–25 August 1828), colonial agent and missionary in West Africa, was born in Champlain, New York, the son of Samuel Ashmun, a justice of the peace, and Parthenia...

Assertive Nationalism and China's Core Interests

Wenting (Florence) Yang and Suisheng Suisheng (Sam) Zhao.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 8635 words.

After 2008, many scholars noticed that Beijing became more willing to respond to popular nationalist calls in pursuing the so-called core national interest and to adopting tougher measures...

Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator

D. W. Hayton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Protestantism and Protestant Churches; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 6392 words.

Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury...

Auchmuty, Samuel

David E. Maas.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Protestantism and Protestant Churches. 1311 words.

Auchmuty, Samuel (16 January 1722–04 March 1777), Episcopal minister and Loyalist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Scottish-born Robert Auchmuty, a judge of admiralty in...

Bailey, Jacob

Sally Schwartz.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Religion and Education; Protestantism and Protestant Churches. 1177 words.

Bailey, Jacob (1731–26 July 1808), Anglican missionary and Loyalist, was born in Rowley, Massachusetts, the son of David Bailey and Mary Hodgkins, farmers. The details of Bailey’s early...

Barclay, Robert, of Ury (1648–1690), religious writer and colonial governor

Gordon DesBrisay.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism. 2907 words.

Barclay, Robert, of Ury (1648–1690), religious writer and colonial governor, was born at Gordonstown, Moray, on 23 December 1648, the eldest of the five children of David Barclay of Ury...

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal

G. L. Harriss.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Irish History; British History; Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500); Roman Catholicism, Roman Catholic Church; UK Politics. 6899 words.

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster...

Bentwich, Norman de Mattos (1883–1971), colonial official and exponent of Jewish ideals

Walter Zander.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law; US Politics; US Colonial and Revolutionary History; Colonialism and Imperialism; Judaism and Jewish Studies; Ethnic Politics. 1157 words.

Bentwich, Norman de Mattos (1883–1971), colonial official and exponent of Jewish ideals, was born in London on 28 February 1883, the elder son and second of eleven children of Herbert...

Buddhist Monasticism

Ann Heirman.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 9114 words.

In symbiosis with the laity, Buddhist monasticism has played a major role in the development of Buddhism in China. Starting shortly after the beginning of the Common Era, in the Later Han...

Calligraphy

Amy McNair.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 17805 words.

Calligraphy is the art of writing characters with a brush and ink. Yet, the word “calligraphy,” from the Greek kalligraphía (beautiful writing), is something of a mistranslation of the...

Carney [married name McBride], (Maria) Winifred [Winnie] (1887–1943), trade unionist, suffrage activist, and Irish republican

Eliza McKee.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online August 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religion; Politics; Native American History; World History. 1691 words.

Carney [married name McBride], (Maria) Winifred, [Winnie] (1887–1943), trade unionist, suffrage activist, and Irish republican, was born at Bangor, co. Down, on 4 December 1887, the...

Central-Local Relations

Yongnian Zheng and Cuifen Weng.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online April 2014 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 8180 words.

According to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the local administration is divided into three tiers: province, county, and township. In reality, however, it is a...

Ceramics

Ellen Huang.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 8582 words.

Since the mid-19th century the scholarship on Chinese ceramics in Western languages and in the Chinese language has proceeded in two main directions: (1) technical studies based on the use...

Chiang Kai-shek

Jeremy Taylor.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online August 2015 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 8223 words.

Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石)—also referred to as Chiang Chung-cheng (Jiang Zhongzheng 蔣中正)—is one of the most controversial figures in modern Chinese history. He is also one of the...

Chiang Kai-shek

Jeremy E. Taylor.

in Chinese Studies

P ublished online August 2015 .

Article. Subjects: East Asian Studies; Asian History; East Asian Philosophy; East Asian Religions. 8457 words.

Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石)—also referred to as Chiang Chung-cheng (Jiang Zhongzheng 蔣中正)—is one of the most controversial figures in modern Chinese history. He is also one of the...