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abacus schools

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

From the late thirteenth century onwards, many towns and guilds paid an ‘abacus master’ to teach mathematics to a given number of boys who intended to engage in commerce or ...

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Abraham Zacuto

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(c. 1450–1515?),

the foremost writer on astronomy in fifteenth-century Castile. Zacuto was born in Salamanca, Spain, to Jewish parents. His principal work, the Almanach perpetuum...

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Absalon Pederssøn Beyer

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(1528–1575), Norwegian theological educator and humanist.

Orphaned at age six, he was raised as the foster son of Bishop Geble Pederssøn, the first Lutheran bishop of Bergen. Beyer...

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Acciajuoli

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500) — Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(᾽Ατζαϊώλης), name of a Florentine banking family, one branch of which rose to prominence in 14th-15th-C. Greece; etym. Ital. acciao (“steel”). The Acciajuolis first made their fortune in...

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Accolti family

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

The Arezzo family of the Accolti produced jurists, churchmen, and writers for centuries. The family had already produced several distinguished jurists when Benedetto Accolti ‘il Vecchio’...

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acorn cup

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Decorative Arts, Furniture, and Industrial Design.

Covered silver cup shaped like the cupulate involucre in which the acorn grows, usually mounted on a botanical stem. Acorn cups were popular in Elizabethan and Jacobean England.

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Adam Krafft

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(Eng., Adam of Fulda; Lat., Fuldanus/Fuldensis, Crato, Vegetius; 1493–1558), German Lutheran church reformer, theologian, and administrator in Hesse.

Krafft's father, Hans, was a...

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Adam Pastor

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(d. 1560),

German Anabaptist leader, probably born in Münster; his real name was Rudolf Martens. He was principally active in Cleves (German Kleve). In 1547 he began to work with...

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Adam van Noort

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Art.

(b Antwerp, 1562; d Antwerp, ?Sept. 1641).

Flemish history and portrait painter, remembered chiefly as one of the teachers of Rubens. Too little is known of the style of either ...

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adiaphora

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

A transliteration of the Greek word ἀδδιáφορα, which means ‘things indifferent’. In theological use, an adiaphoron is a rite or a practice that is not essential to the Christian faith. ...

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adlerglas

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

A German drinking-glass, sometimes with a cover, developed in the mid-sixteenth century. Each glass was decorated in enamel with an image of the eagle of the Holy Roman Empire; the ...

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Admonition to the Parliament

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Christianity.

(1572).

A Puritan manifesto demanding a non-episcopal constitution for the English Church. It was issued anonymously, but responsibility for it was probably correctly attributed...

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Adolf Daucher

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(c.1460–1523/4) and

(c.1485–after 1538),

German sculptors in Augsburg who worked in the service of the Fugger family. Adolf's best-known work is the high altar of the...

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Adolph Clarenbach

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(d. 1529), teacher and Protestant martyr.

Born toward the end of the fifteenth century on the farm “Zum Busche” (in the parish of Lüttringhausen, near Lennep, duchy of Berg),...

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Adolphus Tectander Venator

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(also de Jager; 1569?–1618), minister in the Netherlands who, though not reckoned among the Remonstrants, served as a catalyst in the Arminian controversy.

After completing...

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Adriaan Corneliszoon Van Haemstede

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(c.1525–1562), Dutch theologian and martyrologist.

Now recognized as one of the most influential of the first generation of Dutch Reformed writers, notably through the enduring...

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Adriaan Mijle

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(also Adriaan Arendszoon van der Mijle; 1538–1590), moderate Calvinist and politician in Holland and supporter of William of Orange.

He was a member of one of the most important...

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Adrian VI

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(1459–1523),

Pope from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523, was born Adriaan Florenszoon Dedal in Utrecht on 2 March 1459. He was educated by the Brethren ...

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Adriano Castellesi

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(c.1461–c.1521), Cardinal, born in Corneto (now Tarquínia). In 1488 he was appointed nuncio to Scotland by Pope Innocent VIII with a view to reconciling James III of Scotland to his people....

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Adriano Fiorentino

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).

(c.1450/60–c.1499),

Italian sculptor and medallist, born in Florence, where he cast the bronze statuette of Bellerophon and Pegasus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) by Bertoldo...

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