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Annelid Vision

Cynthia M. Harley and Mark K. Asplen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Development of the Nervous System; Sensory and Motor Systems; Invertebrate Neurobiology. 10096 words.

Annelid worms are simultaneously an interesting and difficult model system for understanding the evolution of animal vision. On the one hand, a wide variety of photoreceptor cells and eye...

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Associative Learning in Invertebrates

Romuald Nargeot and Alexis Bédécarrats.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online September 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 15085 words.

Behaviors of invertebrates can be modified by associative learning in a similar manner to those of vertebrates. Two simple forms of associative learning, Pavlovian and operant conditioning,...

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Auditory Systems of Drosophila and Other Invertebrates

Yun Doo Chung and Jeongmi Lee.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 10653 words.

Hearing in invertebrates has evolved independently as an adaptation to avoid predators or to mediate intraspecific communication. Although many invertebrate groups are able to respond to...

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Caenorhabditis elegans Feeding Behaviors

Nicolas Dallière, Lindy Holden-Dye, James Dillon, Vincent O'Connor and Robert J. Walker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online June 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 15814 words.

The microscopic free-living nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was the first metazoan to have its genome sequenced and for many decades has served as a genetically tractable model for the...

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Caenorhabditis elegans Learning and Memory

James S.H. Wong and Catharine H. Rankin.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Cognition and Behavioural Neuroscience; Invertebrate Neurobiology. 8082 words.

The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), is an organism useful for the study of learning and memory at the molecular, cellular, neural circuitry, and behavioral levels. Its...

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Caenorhabditis elegans Olfaction

Douglas K. Reilly and Jagan Srinivasan.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Molecular and Cellular Systems; Sensory and Motor Systems; Invertebrate Neurobiology. 12849 words.

To survive, animals must properly sense their surrounding environment. The types of sensation that allow for detecting these changes can be categorized as tactile, thermal, aural, or...

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Cephalochordate Nervous System

Simona Candiani and Mario Pestarino.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Development of the Nervous System; Molecular and Cellular Systems; Invertebrate Neurobiology. 10868 words.

The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of...

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Cephalopod Nervous System Organization

Z. Yan Wang and Clifton W. Ragsdale.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 7576 words.

Over 700 species of cephalopods live in the Earth’s waters, occupying almost every marine zone, from the benthic deep to the open ocean to tidal waters. The greatly varied forms and...

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Cephalopod Olfaction

Anna Di Cosmo and Gianluca Polese.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online July 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 6093 words.

Within the Phylum Mollusca, cephalopods encompass a small and complex group of exclusively marine animals that live in all the oceans of the world with the exception of the Black and...

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Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods

Monika Stengl.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology; Molecular and Cellular Systems. 16010 words.

Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are...

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Cnidarian Neurobiology

Richard Satterlie.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 21646 words.

Important cnidarian contributions to our understanding of nervous system evolution may be found in the arrangement of conducting systems and their interactions. We see multiple, diffuse...

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Control of Locomotion in Annelids

William Kristan.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online October 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 14048 words.

This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most...

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Control of Locomotion in Crustaceans

Daniel Cattaert and Donald Hine Edwards.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online June 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 12885 words.

This chapter will consider the control of posture and walking in decapod crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, rock lobsters, and crayfish). The walking system of crustaceans is composed of five...

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Control of Locomotion in Hexapods

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology; Sensory and Motor Systems. 10769 words.

This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls...

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Crayfish Escape

Donald Edwards.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 12413 words.

Crayfish are decapod crustaceans that use different forms of escape to flee from different types of predatory attacks. Lateral and Medial Giant escapes are released by giant interneurons of...

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Crustacean Olfaction

Charles Derby and Manfred Schmidt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 6512 words.

Olfaction is a chemical sense present not only in mammals, insects, and other terrestrial animals, but also in crustaceans, most of which are aquatic. Crustaceans use olfaction for...

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Crustacean Visual Circuits Underlying Behavior

Daniel Tomsic and Julieta Sztarker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 10774 words.

Decapod crustaceans, in particular semiterrestrial crabs, are highly visual animals that greatly rely on visual information. Their responsiveness to visual moving stimuli, with behavioral...

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Development of the Nervous System of Invertebrates

Volker Hartenstein.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 34596 words.

The complex architecture of the nervous system is the result of a stereotyped pattern of proliferation and migration of neural progenitors in the early embryo, followed by the outgrowth of...

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The Divergent Evolution of Arthropod Brains

Nicholas J. Strausfeld.

in The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

April 2019; p ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Invertebrate Neurobiology. 25970 words.

Occasionally, fossils recovered from lower and middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks contain the remains of nervous system. These residues reveal the symmetric arrangements of brain and ganglia...

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Drosophila Olfaction

Quentin Gaudry and Jonathan Schenk.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Sensory and Motor Systems; Invertebrate Neurobiology. 15378 words.

Olfactory systems are tasked with converting the chemical environment into electrical signals that the brain can use to optimize behaviors such as navigating towards resources, finding...

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