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A. J. Foyt

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(1935– )

US motor racing driver, who has won more races and set more records in many different types of cars and events than any other driver.

Foyt was born in Houston...

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Aaland Islands

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

Some 6,500 islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, between Finland and Sweden. They were part of Sweden until 1809, when, together with Finland, they were annexed by Russia. After the collapse of...

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Abd al-Ilah ibn Ali ibn Hussein

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1912, d. 14 July 1958).

Regent of Iraq Born in Hejaz as the grandson of Hussein ibn Ali, he became regent of Iraq for his 4-year-old cousin Faisal II, after the death of his...

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Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 2 Mar. 1937).

Algerian President, 1999–  Born in Morocco, he joined the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) in 1956. Following independence he served as Foreign Minister...

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abdication Crisis

Overview page. Subjects: British History — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

The constitutional crisis, resulting from the king of England's determination to marry a divorced woman, Wallis Simpson, which culminated in the abdication of Edward VIII in 1936.

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Abdou Diouf

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — African Studies.

(b. 7 Mar. 1935).

President of Senegal 1981–2000 Born in Louga, he was educated at the University of Dakar, and graduated in law from the University of Paris. Upon his return to...

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Abdul Aziz ibn Saud

Overview page. Subjects: Islam — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 24 Nov. 1880, d. 9 Nov. 1953).

King of Saudi Arabia 1932–53 Born in Riyadh of the Wahabi dynasty, he was forced into exile in Kuwait in 1902. From there, he organized and led a...

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Abdul Karim Qassem

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1914, d. 9 Feb. 1963).

Iraqi ruler 1958–63 Born in Baghdad as the son of a carpenter, he joined the Iraqi army and rose to the rank of brigadier. Strongly nationalist and...

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Abdullah Bin-Abd-al-Aziz Al Saud

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Islam.

(b. 1926).

King of Saudi Arabia 2005–  Born in Riyadh as the son of Abd-al Aziz ibn Saud, he was educated at the court. In 1962 he became commander of the National Guard, and in...

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Abdullah ibn Hussein

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1880, d. 20 July 1951).

Emir of Transjordan 1921–48, King of Transjordan/Jordan 1948–51 Son of Hussein ibn Ali, Sherif of Mecca, with his brother Faisal he led the Arab Revolt...

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Abdullah II

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — World History.

(1962– )

King of Jordan (1999– ). The eldest son of King Hussein by his second wife, Abdullah was named as heir in place of his uncle (Prince Hassan) in the last days of his...

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Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 14 Apr. 1925; d. 8 Apr. 2010).

Prime Minister of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1979. Born in Old Umtali, he was ordained in 1963, and in 1968 became a bishop in the United Methodist...

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Abkhazia

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

A Caucasian territory which was part of the Soviet Union as an Autonomous Soviet Republic within Georgia. In April 1991 it became part of the independent Republic of Georgia, against the...

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Achille Starace

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1889, d. 28 Apr. 1945).

Italian Fascist One of the earliest Italian Fascists, he led the Fascist movement in Trentino. He was Secretary of the National Fascist Party 1931–9....

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Achmad Sukarno

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 6 June 1901, d. 21 June 1970).

President of Indonesia 1949–68 Born in Surabaya, Sukarno studied engineering in Bandung, where he became involved in the foundation of the Partai...

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Adnan Menderes

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 1899, d. 17 Sept. 1961).

Prime Minister of Turkey 1950–60 Born in Aydin (Izmir), he practised as a lawyer until 1932, when he became a representative for the Republican...

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Adolf Eichmann

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(1906–1962)

German Nazi leader responsible for carrying out Hitler's final solution to the Jewish problem.

Born in Solingen in the Rhineland, Eichmann grew up in Linz. He...

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Adolfo Suárez González

Overview page. Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 25 Sept. 1932).

Prime Minister of Spain 1976–81 Born in Cebreros (Avila), he received a doctorate degree in law from the University of Madrid, and rose quickly in the...

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Adulyadej Bhumibol

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

(b. 5 Dec. 1927).

King (Rama IX) of Thailand 1946–  Born in Massachusetts, where his father, Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, studied medicine, he succeeded his brother, Ananda Mahidol,...

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Afrikaner

Overview page. Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — African Studies.

A term originally used to describe a person born in South Africa rather than Europe; in the twentieth century it was used to denote a White person whose first language was Afrikaans....

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