Journal Article

Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): Norms for Verbal Fluency Tests

Jordi Peña-Casanova, Sonia Quiñones-Úbeda, Nina Gramunt-Fombuena, María Quintana-Aparicio, Miquel Aguilar, Dolors Badenes, Noemí Cerulla, José Luis Molinuevo, Eva Ruiz, Alfredo Robles, Maria Sagrario Barquero, Carmen Antúnez, Carlos Martínez-Parra, Anna Frank-García, Manuel Fernández, Verónica Alfonso, Josep M. Sol and Rafael Blesa

in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

Published on behalf of The National Academy of Neuropsychology

Volume 24, issue 4, pages 395-411
Published in print June 2009 | ISSN: 0887-6177
Published online August 2009 | e-ISSN: 1873-5843 | DOI:
Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): Norms for Verbal Fluency Tests

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Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for three semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruit and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical tasks (words beginning with P, M, and R), and three excluded letter fluency tasks (excluded A, E, and S). The sample consists of 346 participants who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other international normative studies. Finally, these norms should help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

Keywords: Language tests; Vocabulary; Age factors; Demography; Educational status; Reference values

Journal Article.  11213 words. 

Subjects: Neuroscience ; Neuropsychology

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