Journal Article

Mode Effects on Variances, Covariances, Standard Deviations, and Correlations

Jorre T. A. Vannieuwenhuyze

in Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology

Published on behalf of American Association for Public Opinion Research

Volume 3, issue 3, pages 296-316
Published in print September 2015 | ISSN: 2325-0984
Published online August 2015 | e-ISSN: 2325-0992 | DOI:
Mode Effects on Variances, Covariances, Standard Deviations, and Correlations

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Social Research and Statistics


Show Summary Details


The European Social Survey (ESS) program currently includes an investigation of mixed-mode survey designs, in which different respondents complete the survey by different survey modes. Such mixed-mode designs may lower systematic and random selection error if selection effects occur between the modes. Nonetheless, the advantage of selection effects may be counteracted by measurement effects between the modes. In the existing literature, selection and measurement effects in mixed-mode designs have already been extensively researched for mean and proportion parameters. Surprisingly, both effects have hardly been researched for covariance parameters, even though covariances are sufficient statistics for widely used parameters such as correlations, regression coefficients, or and factor loadings. This paper analyzes measurement and selection effects on variances, covariances, standard deviations, and correlations for different items from MTMM experiments within the Estonian European Social Survey Round 6 data by using the instrumental variable method. This analysis yields small to moderate selection and measurement effects, which means that mixed-mode surveys may perform slightly better than single-mode surveys, but also that analysis of mixed-mode data may require small error correction for measurement effects.

Keywords: Covariances; European Social Survey; Measurement effects; Mixed-mode surveys; Mode effects; Selection effects

Journal Article.  8165 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Social Research and Statistics

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content. subscribe or login to access all content.