Chapter

“Enemies Within”

Pamela E. Pennock

in Rise of the Arab American Left

Published by University of North Carolina Press

Published in print February 2017 | ISBN: 9781469630984
Published online September 2017 | e-ISBN: 9781469631004
“Enemies Within”

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This chapter examines the federal government’s violations of Arab Americans’ civil liberties with attention to the Nixon administration’s program Operation Boulder, instituted after the murders by Palestinian commandos of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. The program instituted rigorous checks on Arab immigrants’ visas, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Immigration and Naturalization Service Arab American activists and Arab students for connections to terrorism.

Keywords: Civil liberties; Operation Boulder; Nixon; Munich massacre; FBI; INS; terrorism; Arab students; Abdeen Jabara; AAUG; infringement

Chapter.  8983 words. 

Subjects: History of the Americas

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