Presidential Medal of Freedom

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Initially (1945–63) to honor service in national security, since 1963 has been given upon occasion as the nation's highest civilian award for contributions to the national interest and security, aid to world peace, or public and private endeavors beneficial to the U.S. Many winners have written books, but those with specifically literary careers are Thornton Wilder and Edmund Wilson (1963); J. Frank Dobie, T. S. Eliot, Samuel Eliot Morison, Lewis Mumford, Sandburg, and Steinbeck (1964); Ralph Ellison (1969); Bruce Catton, Ariel and Will Durant, MacLeish, and Michener (1977); Rachel Carson (posthumous), R. P. Warren, Eudora Welty, Tennessee Williams (1980); Eric Hoffer (1983), Clare Booth Luce (1983), Dumas Malone (1983).

Subjects: Literature.

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