Book

Oxford Textbook of Medicine

Edited by David A. Warrell, Timothy M. Cox [[missing key: and]] John D. Firth

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print May 2010 | ISBN: 9780199204854
Published online May 2010 | e-ISBN: 9780199570973 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199204854.001.1

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Oxford Textbook of Medicine

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Acquired coagulation disorders

T.E. Warkentin.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Haematology. 12163 words.

Acquired disorders of coagulation may be the consequence of many underlying conditions, and although they may share abnormality of a coagulation test, e.g. a prolonged prothrombin...

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Acquired metabolic disorders and the nervous system

Neil Scolding and C.D. Marsden.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 6541 words.

Case History—A 65 yr old man presenting with poor memory a few months after a surgical admission.

Case History—An 80 yr old man presenting with falls, reduced mobility,...

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Actinomycoses

K.P. Schaal.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medical Microbiology and Virology; Infectious Diseases. 4639 words.

Human actinomycoses are always synergistic polymicrobial infections in which fermentative actinomycetes—predominantly Actinomyces israelii, A. gerencseriae, or Propionibacterium...

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The acute abdomen

Chris Watson.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online November 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Gastroenterology. 4040 words.

The term ‘acute abdomen’ is commonly used to describe abdominal pain of recent onset requiring urgent surgical assessment. Most cases of acute abdominal pain present in the community...

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Acute aortic syndromes

Andrew R.J. Mitchell, James D. Newton and Adrian P. Banning.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online October 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine. 4141 words.

The acute aortic syndromes are acute dissection, intramural haematoma, and penetrating ulcer, and all involve disruption of the wall of the aorta with potentially devastating...

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Acute behavioural emergencies

Eleanor Feldman.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Psychiatry. 3476 words.

Acute behavioural problems can present in any unit in a general hospital. The first priority is to discover whether or not the patient is severely physically ill and suffering from...

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Acute cardiac failure: definitions, investigation, and management

Andrew L Clark and John G. F Cleland.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine. 6387 words.

Presentations of acute heart failure fall into three overlapping categories: (1) acute breathlessness and pulmonary oedema, (2) chronic fluid retention and peripheral oedema (anasarca), and...

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Acute interstitial nephritis

Simon D Roger.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online September 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Nephrology. 3534 words.

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is inflammation of the tubules and interstitium within the kidney, associated with a relatively sudden onset and a rapid decline in renal function....

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Acute kidney injury

J Firth.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Nephrology. 16921 words.

Definition—for practical clinical purposes, acute kidney injury is defined as a significant decline in renal excretory function occurring over hours or days. This is usually detected...

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Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Tim Eden.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Haematology. 4407 words.

Genetic changes in key progenitor cells in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are typically either point mutations or (more frequently) translocation of proto-oncogenes to active...

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Acute medical presentations

Edited by John D. Firth, David A. Warrell and T.M. Cox.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Clinical Medicine. 35812 words.

This chapter provides concise details of the clinical features, immediate management, key investigations and further management of all of the common acute medical presentations. Other...

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Acute myeloid leukaemia

Jonathan Kell, Steve Knapper and Alan Burnett.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Haematology. 5629 words.

It is believed that acute myeloblastic leukaemia arises in a haematopoietic stem cell as a result of mutations which promote growth or inhibit apoptosis arising in association with...

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Acute pancreatitis

R. Carter and C.J. McKay.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online November 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Gastroenterology. 5849 words.

Acute pancreatitis affects 300 to 600 new patients per million population per year and is most commonly caused by gallstones or alcohol, but there are many other causes and...

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The acute phase response and C-reactive protein

M.B. Pepys.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online November 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Clinical Medicine. 6761 words.

The acute phase response—trauma, tissue necrosis, infection, inflammation, and malignant neoplasia induce a complex series of nonspecific systemic, physiological, and metabolic...

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Acute respiratory failure

Susannah Leaver and Timothy Evans.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Clinical Medicine. 12418 words.

Acute respiratory failure is defined clinically by hypoxaemia (PaO2 <8 kPa, normal range 10–13.3 kPa) with (type 2) or without (type 1) hypercapnia (PaCO2 >6.5 kPa). It is one of the...

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Acute rheumatic fever

Jonathan R. Carapetis.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine. 7946 words.

Acute rheumatic fever is an immunologically mediated multisystem disease induced by recent infection with group A streptococcus. About 5% of people have the potential to develop acute...

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Acute rheumatic fever

Jonathan R. Carapetis.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online October 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine. 8033 words.

Acute rheumatic fever is an immunologically mediated multisystem disease induced by recent infection with group A streptococcus. About 5% of people have the potential to develop acute...

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Adaptive immunity

Paul Klenerman.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Clinical Medicine. 7933 words.

Following the innate immune response, which acts very rapidly, the adaptive immune response plays a critical role in host defence against infectious disease. Unlike the innate...

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Aerospace medicine

D.M. Denison and M. Bagshaw.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Occupational Medicine. 6331 words.

Travel by air is a safe means of transport, but puts people at various physiological risks and is a potential means of spreading infectious disease.

Physiological risks...

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Airways and alveoli

Peter D. Wagner.

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

May 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology. 8395 words.

The lung is the organ of gas exchange, providing the means of transferring oxygen (O2) from the air to the blood by passive diffusion for subsequent distribution to the tissues, and of...

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