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bovate

Overview page. Subjects: History.

One‐eighth of a ploughland or carucate, varying in size from 10 to 18 acres according to the condition of the land; an oxgang.

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carucate

Overview page. Subjects: History.

The term used in the Danelaw, comparable to the Saxon hide, for a unit of taxation, originally the amount of land that a team of eight oxen could plough each year. This varied according to...

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chain

Overview page. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — History.

An imperial measure, equal to 22 yards (20.11m), that was a unit of length formerly used by foresters and land surveyors (10 sq. chains = 1 acre).

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farm sizes

Overview page. Subjects: History.

In the early Middle Ages most families earned a living farming a customary bovate or carucate of 10 to 15 acres of arable land with grazing and other rights on the commons. A few wealthier...

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hide

Overview page. Subjects: British History.

A former measure of land used in England, typically equal to between 60 and 120 acres, being the amount that would support a family and its dependants.

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land tax

Overview page. Subjects: History.

Is an indirect tax levied on the value of land and often forms part of wider property taxation. Local government relied upon land taxes (in the form of rates) for much of their revenue from...

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map

Overview page. Subjects: History.

The Ionian Greeks produced the first maps in the classical tradition (Eratosthenes attributed the first map to Anaximander); the one shown to Cleomenes I of Sparta by Aristagoras of Miletus...

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perch

Overview page. Subjects: History.

A square measure. 40 perches made 1 rood (a quarter of an acre). Old maps and surveys express measurements in the form of, for example, ‘7 a[cres]. 3 r[oods]. 21 p[erches]’.

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rood

Overview page. Subjects: Architecture.

A crucifix, especially one positioned above the rood screen of a church or on a beam over the entrance to the chancel. Recorded from Old English (in the form rōd), the word is related to...

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townland

Overview page. Subjects: European History.

The ancient and basic unit of local government in Ireland. The average size of the 60,462 townlands is 350 acres; the range is from a little over 1 acre to over 7,000 acres.

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urban topography

Overview page. Subjects: History.

British local history has its roots in the countryside, and it is significant that the historical study of †towns as physical places has often used rural metaphors without any sense of...

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virgate

Overview page. Subjects: History.

A standard holding of arable land in the Middle Ages, of up to 30 acres, scattered among the open fields of a manor, with accompanying rights on the commons.

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