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astronomy

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

Until 1582, the need for Calendar reform was a significant spur to astronomy. Astronomers' reactions to the publication of the Copernican theory (1543) were at first rather friendly (see...

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English-speaking world

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

Science has had several principal languages over the centuries—Greek, Latin, Italian, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, and English. During the eighteenth century, French dominated discourse...

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gamma-ray astronomy

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

The study of electromagnetic radiation from space at the very shortest wavelengths and with the highest photon energies (see gamma rays). Gamma rays are produced in regions of extremely...

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gravitational collapse

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Physics.

A phenomenon predicted by the general theory of relativity in which matter collapses as a consequence of gravitational attraction until it becomes a compact object such as a white dwarf, a...

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relativity

Overview page. Subjects: Physics — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

A collective term for two theories, special relativity and general relativity, developed by A. Einstein. The special theory of relativity, published in 1905, is concerned with the laws of...

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Schwarzschild radius

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Physics.

The radius of the event horizon of a black hole. At the Schwarzschild radius the escape velocity becomes equal to the speed of light. The more massive the black hole, the larger the...

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Solvay Congresses and Institute

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

In 1910 Ernest Solvay, an industrial chemist, had a chance encounter with Walther Nernst and learned of the crisis physicists faced in reconciling classical theories with the new quantum...

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