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bentonite

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

A type of clay, derived from weathered volcanic ash, that is highly plastic and expands when wet, and is used to seal landfills, lagoons, and wells. See also montmorillonite.

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cap

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

1 A thin, impermeable layer of soil particles covering the soil surface, caused by the impact of heavy rain on bare soil.

2 See pileus.

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closure

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

1 Any structure that is designed to close off the opening of a container and prevent loss of its contents.

2 In North America, the process of preparing a...

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disposal facility

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

Equipment and land that is used to receive waste and dispose of it, including landfills, surface impoundments, land farming, deep‐well injection, ocean dumping, or incineration.

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diversion rate

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

The percentage of waste materials that are diverted from traditional disposal (such as landfill or incineration) to be recycled, composted, or reused.

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dump

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

An uncontrolled area where solid wastes have been left on or in the ground, sometimes illegally, without environmental controls. See also landfill.

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energy recovery

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

The process of extracting useful energy from waste, such as the heat produced by incineration or by harnessing methane gas from landfills.

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flare

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Environmental Science.

1 A sudden burst of flame.

2 A device that burns gases (such as methane gas in a landfill) to prevent them from being released into the environment.

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garbage disposal methods

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

In urban and suburban communities, collection and disposal of domestic and industrial waste is an important service, usually provided by local government agencies. In affluent communities,...

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groundwater discharge

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

North American term for groundwater that enters coastal waters, having been contaminated by landfill leachates, hazardous wastes, and septic tanks.

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groundwater pollution

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

The pollution of groundwater, for example by intrusion of water into coastal aquifers, or by leakage from landfill sites or underground long‐term storage of high‐level nuclear waste.

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hazardous waste landfill

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

A landfill site in which hazardous waste is deposited and covered.

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integrated waste management

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

(IWM)

An approach to the sustainable management of waste, based on environmentally sound processes such as source reduction, recycling, resource recovery, incineration, and...

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leachate collection system

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

A system that gathers leachate (usually from landfill) and pumps it to the surface for treatment, in order to prevent the spread of contamination.

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liner

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

A protective layer, often made of plastic or dense clay, that is installed along the bottom and sides of a landfill in order to prevent or reduce the flow of leachate into the environment.

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made ground

Overview page. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — Plant Sciences and Forestry.

(made land)

An area of land that has been man-made, generally through the reclamation of marshes, lakes, or shorelines. An artificial fill is used, consisting of natural materials,...

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methane

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

A gas that is a trace component of the atmosphere (c.2.0 × 10−4 per cent by volume), but which makes a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, as well as tending to deplete...

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methane recovery

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

The capture and reuse of methane emissions (particularly from animal wastes, landfill sites, and coal mines) in order to reduce the greenhouse effect and decrease global warming.

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municipal solid waste

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

(MSW)

Urban refuse, including residential, industrial, and commercial wastes, that is collected for landfill. It does not include agricultural and wood wastes or residues.

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sanitary landfill

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology — Environmental Science.

A traditional approach to solid waste management, in which material is simply dumped in holes in the ground (landfill) and then covered with soil

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