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analogue transmission

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

A method of sending information over long distances by encoding it as an analogue signal. This involves modulating a continuous beam of charged electromagnetic particles (most commonly...

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artefact

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics.

1 Man-made object.

2 Something observed that is not naturally present but that has arisen as a result of the process of observation or investigation.

null...

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average evoked potential

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

The fluctuation in amplitude of an evoked potential, averaged over a large number of separate readings to eliminate random noise (2). Also called an average evoked response (AER). See also...

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boot off

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Used to describe the interruption of a connection to a network, for example where the amount of noise on the transmission line is so large that a connection cannot be maintained, as in ‘The...

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channel coding

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

The use of error-detecting or error-correcting codes in order to achieve reliable communication through a transmission channel. In channel coding, the particular code to be used is chosen...

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channel coding theorem

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

In communication theory, the statement that any channel, however affected by noise, possesses a specific channel capacity — a rate of conveying information that can never be exceeded...

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channel error

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

An error, in a signal arriving at the decoder in a communication system, whose occurrence is due to noise in the channel. By contrast, a decoder error is an unsuccessful attempt by the...

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coloured noise

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

Any noise (2) apart from white noise. US colored noise.

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d prime

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

In signal detection theory, an index of the detectability or discriminability of a signal, given by the difference between the means (or separation between the peaks) of the...

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digital transmission

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

A method of sending television, radio, and mobile phone data over long distances by using digital encoding to modulate a continuous beam of charged electromagnetic particles (typically...

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ear protectors

Overview page. Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

Devices to protect the organs of hearing, i.e., eardrums, auditory ossicles, and cochlea from loud noise, e.g., due to machinery, gunfire. The simplest ear protectors consist of ear plugs...

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erasure channel

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

A communication channel in which the effect of noise is to cause the decoder sometimes to be presented with an “error” symbol to decode. The decoder may then act in the knowledge that in...

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error control

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

The employment, in a computer system or in a communication system, of error-detecting and/or error-correcting codes with the intention of removing the effects of error and/or recording the...

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extreme environment

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

Any environment that has extremes in growth conditions for plants, including temperature, salinity, pH, and water availability.

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figure and ground

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

In the psychology of perception, the organization of a perceptual field into a figure (the subject) with a form or structure that stands out against and in front of a relatively...

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filter

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

A device for separating solid particles from a liquid or gas. The simplest laboratory filter for liquids is a funnel in which a cone of paper (filter paper) is placed. Special containers...

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fluctuation–dissipation theorem

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A theory relating quantities in equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and microscopic and macroscopic quantities. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem was first derived for...

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Gaussian noise

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Noise whose distribution of amplitude over time is Gaussian.

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image intensifier

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

An electronic device that provides a TV image from an X-ray source. The X-rays strike a fluorescent screen, giving off electrons, which are accelerated using an electron lens before...

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impulse noise

Overview page. Subjects: Computing.

Noise of large amplitude and some statistical irregularity, affecting an analog channel severely but (relatively) infrequently. In contrast, white noise affects it (relatively) unseverely...

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