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Parthia

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Adiabene

Overview page. Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies.

A small kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (roughly the region of the Little Zab and Great Zab rivers in present-day Iraq), whose ruler Izates, along with his mother, Helena, and his ...

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Antioch Margiana

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(southern Turkmenistan, 30 km. (18 mi.) east of modern Merv), situated in the narrow, fertile valley of the Murghab river, separated by the Kopet Dağ mountains on the west from ...

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Antiochus III

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(‘the Great’) (c. 242–187 bc), second son of Seleucus (2) II, succeeded to the Seleucid throne as a young man, after the assassination of his elder brother, Seleucus (3) III. ...

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Arsacids

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

The Iranian royal dynasty with its original centre in Parthia, ruling c.250 bc–ad 224; named after the tribal chieftain Arsacēs, who had invaded the former Seleucid satrapy of Parthia from...

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Bactria

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

An ancient country in central Asia, corresponding to the northern part of modern Afghanistan. Traditionally the home of Zoroaster, it was the seat of a powerful Indo-Greek kingdom in the...

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Cornēlius Sulla Fēlix, Lūcius

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

B. c.138 bc of an old patrician family, after a dissolute youth inherited a fortune from his stepmother, which enabled him to enter the aristocratic career. Chosen by Marius as his quaestor...

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Crassus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Son of Publius Licinius Crassus (consul 97 bc, escaped from Cinna to Spain, joined Sulla after Cinna's death, played a prominent part in regaining Italy for him, and made a fortune in...

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Ctesiphon

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

On the river Tigris, c. 96 km. (60 mi.) above Babylon, was a village garrisoned by Parthia from c.140 bc as an Asiatic stronghold opposite Hellenistic Seleuceia (1), becoming (from ...

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Diodotus I

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Founder of the Graeco-Bactrian monarchy. Formerly the Seleucid satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, the date and circumstance of his independence remain uncertain. Some place his rebellion as early...

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Diodotus II

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Son and successor of Diodotus (1) I. During his reign (c. 235–226 bc), he allied with the Parthians and abandoned the use of the Seleucid name Antiochus on his coinage. He was overthrown by...

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Domitius Corbulo, Gnaeus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Through the six marriages of his mother Vistilia, was connected with many prominent families: one of his stepsisters married the emperor Gaius 1. In ad 47 he was legate of Lower Germany...

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Edessa

Overview page. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

Hellenistic capital; cradle of Syriac Christianity, it rose to be Syria’s most important see before seizure by the Arabs c.640. Captured by the Byzantines in 944, it became the centre ...

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Elymais

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Greek term for western part of ancient Elam, i.e. mod. Khuzistan in SW Iran. The main city is Susa, lying in a well-irrigated plain, hence another term (broadly) for the ...

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Eucratides I

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(‘the Great’), Graeco-Bactrian king c.170–145bc. His brilliant but warlike reign marked the climax of Greek rule in Bactria(-Sogdiana). Just. Epit. 61. 6. 1–5 compares him to Mithradates...

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Europus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

On the middle Euphrates, founded by the Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bc, and a polis in the 2nd cent. bc. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in the ...

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Hatra

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

In semi-desert northern Mesopotamia, c.80 km. (50 mi.) south of Mosul, flourished greatly as a semi-independent city with water resources and territory between Rome and Parthia c. ad...

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Hecatompylus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Near Damghan, NE Iran, a site 8 km. (5 mi.) long identified by British excavators (1960s) as capital (also, Comis ?) of the Seleucid and Parthian province Comisene, created an ...

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Iulius Quadratus Bassus, Gaius

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

(RE Suppl. 14. 425a)

from Pergamum, of regal ancestry, legate (see legati) of Judaea c. ad 102/3 –5, suffect consul 105, commander and companion of Trajan in the Second Dacian ...

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Licinius Crassus, Marcus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Escaped from Cornelius Cinna to Spain, joined Sulla after Cinna's death, played a prominent part in regaining Italy for him, and made a fortune in Sulla's proscriptions. After his...

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Licinius Lucullus, Lucius

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies.

Served in the Social War under Sulla and, as quaestor (88 bc), was the only officer who supported his march on Rome. As proquaestor in the east, he was Sulla's most reliable officer,...

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