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personality

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attribution theory

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine — Psychology.

A theory designed to explain how people perceive, infer, or ascribe causes to their own and other people's behaviour. Basic research in this area has established that we tend to attribute...

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authoritarian personality

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology.

Title of 1940s study by Berkeley researchers into the psychological origins of anti‐Semitism. The term was used to refer to an ‘ethnocentric’ personality pattern characterized by traits...

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avoidant

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology — Medicine and Health.

adj. describing a personality type characterized by self-consciousness, hypersensitivity to rejection and criticism from others, avoidance of normal situations because of their...

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borderline personality disorder

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of impulsivity and unstable personal relationships, self-image, and affect, beginning in early childhood, and indicated by such...

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brain

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Science and Mathematics.

n. the enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system (see illustration). The average adult human brain weighs...

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California Psychological Inventory

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Another name for the F scale. California A-S scale See A-S scale. California E scale See E scale. California PEC scale See PEC scale.

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Catell 16PF

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

An inventory that uses factor analysis to measure 16 source traits of personality. Many personologists have adopted the Catell 16PF for the personality assessment of athletes.

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character

Overview page. Subjects: Arts and Humanities.

A person's character is the sum total of dispositions to action (including thinking and saying). An action is (apparently) out of character if it does not conform to the pattern the person...

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chronic arousal

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

The basic arousal level of an individual. It is thought by some to be a function of personality: for example, extroverts generally have low chronic arousal levels so they often seek out...

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competitive A-trait

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A relatively enduring personality disposition to have elevated levels of anxiety before, during, and after any athletic competition.

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constitutional psychology

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

A theory, especially that of the US psychologist William H. Sheldon (1899–1977), postulating that personality is dependent on physique or somatotype. See ectomorph, endomorph, mesomorph....

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Culture and Personality School

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology.

A development in the study of socialization that arose principally in the United States in the 1930s. The theory combined elements of psychology, anthropology, and sociology, but...

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ego-syntonic

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

Experienced as consistent or harmonious with the total personality. The term was introduced by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) in 1914 in an article ‘On Narcissism: An Introduction’ (Standard...

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extrasensory perception

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

A generic term for various conjectural paranormal phenomena that are defined by the Journal of Parapsychology to involve experience of, or response to, a target object, state, event, or...

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extroversion

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Psychology.

n. 1. (extraversion) an enduring personality trait characterized by interest in the outside world rather than the self. People high in extroversion (extroverts), as...

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extrovert

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

A personality type characterized by individuals being socially cooperative and liking others. Extroverts are generally outwardly expressive, active, and readily engage in social activities....

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factor analysis

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences — Science and Mathematics.

A multivariate statistical technique, used to simplify analysis; see R. Rummel (1970). For an example of its use in geography, see Brown and Raymond (2007) Appl. Geog. 27, 2.

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Fiedler's contingency theory

Overview page. Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Also known as Fiedler's contingency model of leadership effectiveness. A theory of leadership that suggests that a particular personality disposition may be effective in one situation, but...

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field theory

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Any theory in which phenomena are interpreted as resulting from the dynamic interplay of elements within a field, especially (in psychology) the theory introduced in 1935 by the...

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Gordon Willard Allport

Overview page. Subjects: Social Sciences.

(1897 –1967) An American social psychologist best known for his theory of personality and studies of the social and psychological construction of attitudes.

Allport developed a...

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