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sedimentary basin

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Adelaidean

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A stage (542–1 300 Ma ago) of the Upper Proterozoic of south-eastern Australia, underlain by the Carpentarian and overlain by the Hawker (Cambrian).

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adhesion warts

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A sedimentary structure consisting of an irregular, wart-like or blistered, sand surface, formed by the wind blowing dry sand over a moist surface. The warts tend to be slightly...

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arenaceous

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

Sandy in texture, or applied to rocks composed of cemented, usually quartz, sand. Arenaceous rocks include quartzites and greywackes.

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argillaceous

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

Applied to rocks that are silt- or clay-sized sediments with grains less than 0.0625 mm in diameter. They account for more than 50 per cent of sedimentary rocks and most have a very high...

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axinite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

An uncommon borosilicate mineral with variable composition, generally given as (Ca,Mn,Fe2+)Al2(BO3)Si4O12(OH); sp. gr. 3.26–3.36; hardness 7; violet-brown; crystals normally triclinic;...

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ball and pillow structure

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A sedimentary structure occurring on the base of some sandstones which are interbedded with mudstones, and characterized by globular protrusions and isolated pillows of sandstone found in...

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ball clay

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A sedimentary, usually lacustrine, kaolinitic clay, derived from the intense weathering of granitic and other rocks to give a unique clay sediment with both plasticity and strength. Ball...

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barred basin

Overview page. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — Earth Sciences and Geography.

A partially restricted sedimentary basin, where free movement of waters is impeded by the presence of a rock sill or sediment barrier. This restriction often results in anoxic or...

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basement

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Environmental Science.

Intensely folded metamorphic or plutonic rocks, often Precambrian, covered by relatively undistorted sedimentary rocks. See Valdiya (2002) PPG 26, 3.

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breccia

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

A complex type of rock made of shattered, crushed, and (in some cases) once-melted fragments of rock, all cemented together by a finer-grained material (the matrix). It is a common result...

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calcite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A very common form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) that is the principal ingredient of many sedimentary rocks (e.g. limestones, marble, and chalk).

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carbon cycle

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The movement of carbon through the surface, interior, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon exists in atmospheric gases, in dissolved ions in the hydrosphere, and in solids as a major...

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carbonate

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A mineral that is mostly found in limestones and dolomites (such as calcite). The term is also used to describe sedimentary rocks that are largely composed of carbonate minerals.

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celestite

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

Mineral SrSO4 which may form a solid solution series with barite; sp. gr. 3.9–4.0; hardness 3.0–3.5; orthorhombic; faint blue to colourless, sometimes stained red; white streak; vitreous...

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cementation

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

The binding together of particles by adhesive materials, as in sedimentary rocks. See Nash and Smith (2003) Geomorph. 50, 1–3 on calcretes.

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clastic

Overview page. Subjects: Environmental Science.

Often refers to fragmentary sedimentary rocks that are made up of fragments of pre‐existing rocks (clasts).

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claystone

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A compacted, non-fissile, fine-grained, sedimentary rock composed predominantly of clay-sized (less than 4 μm grain size) particles. Compare mudstone.

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connate water

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

From the Latin connatus meaning ‘born together’, water that has remained trapped in a sedimentary rock since the original sediments were laid down in that water, prior to lithification....

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convolute lamination

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A sedimentary structure consisting of a series of upright or overturned folds whose intensity dies out both upwards and downwards within a single bed. The convolutions are formed by the...

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cross-stratification

Overview page. Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

A family of primary sedimentary structures formed by the migration of the slip-faces of rippled bedforms or of bars. It is characterized by inclined laminations (foresets) bounded by planar...

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