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validity

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argument

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

To argue is to produce considerations designed to support a conclusion. An argument is either the process of doing this (in which sense an argument may be heated or protracted) or the...

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begging the question

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The procedure of assuming what is at issue in an argument. Although the charge is commonly made, there is no logical definition of those kinds of argument that beg the question. In the...

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circle, vicious

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

A definition is viciously circular when the term to be defined reappears in the definition, or where the notion that is being defined is implicitly contained in the definition. The...

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deduction

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

The form of reasoning characteristic of logic and mathematics in which a conclusion is inferred from a set of premises that logically imply it. The term also denotes a conclusion drawn by...

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designated value

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The valuation that valid formulae get in an intended interpretation of a logical calculus. See model theory.

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follow

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

The essential virtue of a valid argument is that the conclusion should follow from the premises. This is equivalent to the premises entailing the conclusion, and usually although not...

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forms of argument

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Two arguments may be of the same form although their components concern different things. ‘All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, so Socrates is mortal’ has the same form as ‘All dogs are...

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invalid

Overview page. Subjects: Mathematics.

Not valid. A conclusion which is not a necessary consequence of the conditions, so one counterexample is sufficient to show a proposition is invalid.

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logical truth

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

A truth that is a theorem of some logic, or that is valid or true in any interpretation of the logical system.

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proof

Overview page. Subjects: Law.

N.

1 In the law of evidence, the means by which the existence or nonexistence of a fact is established to the satisfaction of the court, including testimony,...

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salva veritate

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

(Latin, saving the truth)

Two expressions are intersubstitutable salva veritate if the result of substituting one for the other always preserves the truth-value of any sentence in...

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