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Congress of Vienna

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Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, Prince

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1770–1861)

Polish statesman and nationalist leader. A cousin of the last independent king of Poland, he worked unfailingly at the restoration of his country when Russia, Prussia,...

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Concert System

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

‘The Congress of Vienna of 1815 initiated the “concert system” which, for the purposes of any study of international organisation, constituted a significant development. As sponsored by the...

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Confederation of the Rhine

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1806–13)

A grouping of middle and south German states. After Napoleon's victory at Austerlitz (1805) he announced the creation of a Confederation of the Rhine, whose members were...

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Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

Overview page. Subjects: International Law.

In fact the third congress held at Aix-la Chapelle (the other two being in 1668 and 1748), the title is commonly given to the conference of the European Powers (Austria ...

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Frederick William III

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.

(1770–1840)

King of Prussia (1797–1840). After his defeat at the Battle of Jena he was forced by the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) to surrender half his dominions by the creation of the...

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German Confederation

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1815–66)

An alliance of German sovereign states. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) the 38 German states formed a loose grouping to protect themselves against French ambitions....

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Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston

Overview page. Subjects: British History.

(1784–1865).

Prime minister. A pupil of Dugald Stewart at Edinburgh, he went on to Cambridge University. He was elected in 1807 for a pocket borough in the Isle of Wight and...

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Holy Alliance

Overview page. Subjects: History — Christianity.

The declaration signed in 1815 by the sovereigns of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, and later by others, declaring that henceforth the relations of the Powers would be based on ‘the sublime...

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Hundred Days

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Military History.

(20 March–28 June 1815)

The period between Napoleon's return from the island of Elba and the date of the second restoration of Louis XVIII. Napoleon landed at Cannes on 1 March...

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Karl August Hardenberg, Prince

Overview page. Subjects: World History — Literature.

(1750–1822)

Prussian statesman and reformer. In 1810 he was appointed Chancellor of Prussia and continued the domestic reforms inaugurated by Stein. These included the improvement...

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Monaco

Overview page. Subjects: World History — History by Period.

A small principality located in the south of France in the hills above the Mediterranean Sea.

Physical.

The ancient town and its fortress perch on a rocky outcrop that...

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Regency

Overview page. Subjects: History — Decorative Arts, Furniture, and Industrial Design.

The period in Britain from 1811 to 1820 when the Prince of Wales, later George IV, acted as regent for his father, George III, who had become insane. Among the major events of the Regency...

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Schleswig-Holstein

Overview page. Subjects: Literature — History.

A state (Land) of northern Germany, formerly the subject of a long-running dispute involving Prussia, Austria, and Denmark (the Schleswig–Holstein question). Both Schleswig and Holstein...

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Schwarzenberg, Karl Philipp, Fürst zu

Overview page. Subjects: World History.

(1771–1820)

Austrian field-marshal. He entered the imperial cavalry in 1787. His courage at the Battles of Hohenlinden (1800) and Ulm (1805) saved many Austrian lives, and he was...

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Stein, Karl, Reichsfreiherr vom und zum

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.

(1757–1831)

Prussian statesman and reformer. After various diplomatic and administrative appointments he became Minister of Commerce in 1804. In 1807 he was dismissed by Frederick...

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