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alarm calls

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alarm signal

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Psychology.

A warning signal given by an animal to other members of its population in response to perceived danger, usually the approach of a predator. This is a form of altruism, since the animal that...

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auditory signals

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

An aspect of communication in which certain properties of sound have been exploited during evolution. Sound production can be turned on and off rapidly, and varied in other ways, so as to...

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cheating

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

An evolutionary strategy, in which some members of a species gain an advantage over others by not conforming to the social norm. For example, alarm signals incur a cost in attracting the...

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cooperative behaviour

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

Behaviour in which members of a species combine in an activity, such as hunting, anti-predator behaviour, or care of the young, and in which there is coordination among individuals, to...

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fear

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health — Arts and Humanities.

(feer)

an emotional state evoked by threat of danger. It is usually characterized by unpleasant subjective experiences; physiological changes, such as increased heart rate and...

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functional reference

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

A form of communication in which the signal varies according to the type of object to which reference is being made. It is most commonly seen in alarm situations. A number of species,...

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group living

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences — Evolutionary Biology.

The result of gregariousness. The main factors affecting group living are food and predation. Foraging may be enhanced if members of a group inform each other about the whereabouts of food,...

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kin Recognition

Overview page. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology — Zoology and Animal Sciences.

The ability to recognize individuals to which one is genetically related. This is often the result of early experience. For example, Belding's ground squirrels (Citellus beldingi) are born...

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kin selection

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A form of natural selection in which the altruism of an individual benefits its close relatives, and thereby helps to ensure the survival of at least some of its own genes. See also...

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language

Overview page. Subjects: Media Studies.

1. The phenomenon of human symbolic communication, including speech, writing, and sign language. In face-to-face interaction, language is arguably inseparable from nonverbal...

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pheromone

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

A chemical substance, produced and released into the environment by an animal, which then elicits a physiological and/or behavioural response in another individual of the same species. For...

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scent marking

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

The use by an animal of scented secretions, faeces, urine, or saliva as a means of communication: the substance is deliberately placed on the ground, on an object, or on another animal.

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social evolution

Overview page. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology — Public Health and Epidemiology.

A continued increase in the complexity of human society resulting from the selection, transmission, and utilization of the useful information gained in each generation.

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song

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

A complex pattern of sound that is produced by means of specialized organs. Such organs are used by many animals in communication.

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theory of mind

Overview page. Subjects: Psychology.

People's intuitive understanding of their own and other people's minds or mental states, including beliefs and thoughts. It develops by degrees from a very early age in humans: by the age...

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vigilance

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences — Psychology.

The readiness of an animal to detect certain specified events that occur unpredictably in its environment.

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vocalization

Overview page. Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

The production of sound by the passage of air across vocal cords.

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