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Mondrian, Piet (1872–1944)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 90 words.

co-founder (with Theo van Doesburg) of De Stijl and a pioneer of abstract art. Influenced by Cubism,

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Muhammad II (1429–81)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 31 words.

Ottoman Sultan (1451–81), considered to be the true founder of the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad captured Constantinople (

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Jinnah, Muhammad Ali (1876–1948)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 75 words.

Founder of Pakistan. A British-trained lawyer, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1906, but left it in

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Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich (1875–1946)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 44 words.

head of state of the Soviet Union (1919–46). He was a founder (1912) of the newspaper

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Kazan, Elia (1909–2003)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 54 words.

b. Turkey. Kazan was one of the founders of the Actors' Studio. His work in the cinema includes

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Kierkegaard, Søren (1813–55)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 63 words.

regarded as the founder of modern existentialism. He believed that the individual must exercise free will, making deliberate decisions

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Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (1876–1944)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 56 words.

and founder of futurism. In such works as Futurismo e Fascismo (1924), he embraced fascism and advocated

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Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818–83)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 169 words.

and founder (with Friedrich Engels) of international communism. He produced his own philosophical approach of dialectical materialism.

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Lorenz, Konrad Zacharias (1903–89)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 45 words.

a founder of ethology. He observed that instinct played a major role in animal behaviour, as for example in

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Luther, Martin (1483–1546)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 132 words.

German Christian reformer who was a founder of Protestantism and leader of the Reformation. He was deeply concerned about

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Koffka, Kurt (1886–1941)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 36 words.

b. Germany. With Wolfgang Köhler and Max Wertheimer, Koffka was a founder of gestalt psychology. He wrote

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Lao Tzu

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 61 words.

credited as the founder of Taoism. According to tradition, Lao Tzu was a contemporary of Confucius, and developed

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Webb, Beatrice (1858–1943)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 46 words.

Sidney Webb was one of the founders of the Fabian Society. The Webbs founded the London School of Economics

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Wertheimer, Max (1880–1943)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 32 words.

Wertheimer was a founder of Gestalt psychology. His early work concerned visual perception. Later, he attempted to apply Gestalt

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Berzelius, Jöns Jakob, Baron (1779–1848)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 61 words.

one of the founders of modern chemistry. His accomplishments include the discovery of cerium, selenium, and thorium;

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Genghis Khan (c.1162–1227)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 87 words.

Conqueror and founder of the Mongol Empire, b. Temüjin. In 1206, he united Mongolia and was proclaimed Genghis Khan

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Heidegger, Martin (1889–1976)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 67 words.

A founder of existentialism and a major influence on modern philosophy, his most important work was Being and Time (

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Henry VII (1457–1509)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 80 words.

King of England (1485–1509), founder of the Tudor dynasty. Having come to the throne by defeating Richard III

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Herzl, Theodor (1860–1904)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 66 words.

Founder of modern Zionism, b. Hungary. As a journalist reporting on the Dreyfus Affair, Herzl became convinced of

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Fox, George (1624–91)

in World Encyclopedia

P ublished online January 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: General Studies. 58 words.

founder of the Quakers. He embarked upon his evangelical calling in 1646 in response to an ‘inner light’. Imprisoned

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