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Louis Mann

Overview page. Subjects: Theatre.

(1865–1931), character actor. The native New Yorker made his debut in German-language theatricals while still a child, then withdrew from the stage to complete his education. Mann later...

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“Devilish Enemies of Religion” in King Philip's War

Adrian Chastain Weimer.

in Martyrs' Mirror

October 2011; p ublished online January 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Christianity. 11739 words.

Chapter 6 asks how, in the context of King Philip's (or Metacom's) War, martyrdom rhetoric contributed to the reformulation of colonial and Native American identities. Colonists saw...

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Overview page. Subjects: Law.


A person who, under the law of a particular state, is not a citizen of that state. Aliens are usually classified as resident aliens (domiciled in the host country) or transient...

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The Shield in a Limited War

David Millie.

in Team 19 in Vietnam

September 2013; p ublished online May 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Military History. 5963 words.

The chapter follows on from the Khe Sanh experience, which caused the military leadership on each side of the conflict to review their respective situations and to decide on some conceptual...

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An Uncertain Relationship

Mark L. Bradley.

in Bluecoats and Tar Heels

January 2009; p ublished online September 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas. 9573 words.

After the surrender at the Bennett farm, the role of the U.S. Army shifted from conqueror to peacekeeper. The white North Carolinians became hopeless and disoriented after the defeat and...

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in Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War

May 2003; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 6371 words.

This concluding chapter evaluates the relative success of British policy towards Switzerland between 1939 and 1945. It explains how British policy-makers justified their benevolent attitude...

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Being Human While Being American

Donald W. Shriver, Jr..

in Honest Patriots

March 2005; p ublished online September 2006 .

Chapter. Subjects: Religious Studies. 10304 words.

This chapter celebrates public occasions and measures in recent years where the American government and citizens’ groups acknowledged national “misdeeds” in international relations,...

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Catalogue of Error: Piece of Cake (1988)

S. P. MacKenzie.

in The Battle of Britain on Screen

May 2007; p ublished online March 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Film. 9989 words.

As far back as the early 1950s, it had become evident that Air Ministry claims concerning the number of enemy aircraft shot down had, in fact, been greatly exaggerated. It was also becoming...

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Ireland’s religious response

Paul Huddie.

in The Crimean War and Irish Society

June 2016; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 12779 words.

This chapter will highlight how the various Christian denominations in Ireland reacted to the Crimean War, and how, unlike the Indian Mutiny and Boer War, it stimulated a substantial,...

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Air Power versus Ground Forces

Phil Haun.

in Cross-Domain Deterrence

April 2019; p ublished online July 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations. 8647 words.

Classical deterrence concepts were developed to prevent nuclear war, for obvious reasons, and thus tend to focus on high-stakes crisis bargaining, or “chicken” games, to both threaten and...

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The Product: Strategic Effect

Colin S. Gray.

in The Strategy Bridge

September 2010; p ublished online September 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations. 15837 words.

Strategy, like war broadly and warfare narrowly, has no intrinsic value. Strategy has worth only for its product, which is strategic effect. This is the master concept that explains the...

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Churchill and the Labour Movement

Henry Pelling.

in Churchill

February 1996; p ublished online October 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 7089 words.

Winston Churchill's long career in politics coincided almost precisely with the first sixty-five years of the existence of the Labour Party. His supposed role in the Tonypandy riots in...

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The Johnson Administration and the Vietnam Estimates

Joshua Rovner.

in Fixing the Facts

July 2011; p ublished online August 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: International Relations. 18249 words.

This chapter examines the Johnson administration's strategy in Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson was a longtime believer in the domino theory. He feared that friendly states would fall to communism...

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Mackenzie, Gillespie, Calef, Egan, Dearing, and Schaff during the Overland and Petersburg Campaigns

Brian R. McEnany.

in For Brotherhood and Duty

March 2015; p ublished online September 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Military History. 4863 words.

From May to July, 1864, several members of the class participated in the Overland campaign and the siege of Petersburg with the Army of the Potomac. George Gillespie’s actions at Bethesda...

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Bosnian statehood and Partisan diversity

Marko Attila Hoare.

in The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War

February 2014; p ublished online May 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 25508 words.

The year 1944 represented, in a sense, the high-point of the autonomous Bosnian Partisan movement, before the Soviet liberation of Serbia, the Supreme Staff’s triumphal entry into Belgrade,...

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Prize Law

James Kraska.

Reference Entry. Subjects: Public International Law; International Law; Law. 5614 words.

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Wound, Capture, or Kill: A Reply to Ryan Goodman’s ‘The Power to Kill or Capture Enemy Combatants’

Michael N. Schmitt.

in European Journal of International Law

August 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Public International Law. 3357 words.

This article examines two issues raised by Professor Goodman’s article published in this volume of EJIL: (1) a purported obligation under international humanitarian law (IHL)...

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States of Shock

Overview page. Subjects: Literary Studies (Plays and Playwrights).

A: Sam Shepard Pf: 1991, New York Pb: 1992, prose and songs G:null...

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Occupations and Military Government

Bianka Adams.

in Military History

P ublished online February 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Military History; Pre-20th Century Warfare; First World War; Second World War; Post-WW2 Military History. 10731 words.

According to international law, a territory is under occupation when hostile armed forces assume authority over it. An occupying power exercises executive, legislative, and judicial...

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