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Minimal relativism, dominance, and standard of living comparisons based on functionings

Prasanta K. Pattanaik and Yongsheng Xu.

in Oxford Economic Papers

April 2007; p ublished online April 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Economics. 9307 words.

This paper considers the functioning approach to the standard of living. It shows that, in evaluating standards of living, one is faced with deep-rooted tensions between the principle of...

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maximin principle

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

A principle of decision theory, that counsels that at least in some circumstance, the right decision is that which maximizes the minimum outcome: i.e., that which makes the worst outcome as...

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Reasons: process and substance

Timothy Endicott.

in Administrative Law

April 2015; p ublished online June 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Constitutional and Administrative Law. 14866 words.

This chapter illustrates the principle of relativity by explaining why public authorities may or may not be required to give reasons for their decisions, depending on the type of decision...

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The Authority of Investment Treaty Tribunals to Issue Orders Restraining Domestic Court Proceedings

Daniel Kalderimis.

in ICSID Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal

October 2016; p ublished online October 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Arbitration; Company and Commercial Law; Settlement of Disputes. 15679 words.

This article considers the authority of investment treaty tribunals to issue provisional measures affecting domestic courts or, as they are more commonly known, ‘anti-suit injunctions’. In...

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maximin and minimax

Overview page. Subjects: Philosophy.

Game-and decision-theoretical strategies which require one to make one's worst possible outcome as good as possible (that is, to maximize the minimum). Maximin grounds Rawls's ‘difference...

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deferred taxation

Edited by Jonathan Law.

in A Dictionary of Accounting

July 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Accounting. 125 words.

A sum set aside for tax in the accounts of an organization that will become payable in a period other than that under review. It arises because of timing differences between tax rules and...

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deferred taxation

Jonathan Law.

in A Dictionary of Business and Management

January 2009; p ublished online January 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Business and Management. 95 words.

A sum set aside for tax in the accounts of an organization that will become payable in a period other than that under review. It arises because of timing differences between tax rules and...

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deferred taxation

Edited by Jonathan Law.

in A Dictionary of Business and Management

January 2016; p ublished online February 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Business and Management. 95 words.

A sum set aside for tax in the accounts of an organization that will become payable in a period other than that under review. It arises because of timing differences between tax rules and...

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semiotic square

Ian Buchanan.

in A Dictionary of Critical Theory

February 2018; p ublished online February 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Theory and Cultural Studies. 290 words.

A graphic figure used by the Paris-based Lithuanian linguist Algirdas Julien *Greimas to map out the deep structure of meaning, and more especially meaning-production. Premised on the...

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adaptive expectations

Edited by John Black, Nigar Hashimzade and Gareth Myles.

in A Dictionary of Economics

January 2012; p ublished online May 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Economics. 127 words.

The principle that the future value of an economic variable is calculated using the previous prediction plus some fraction of the difference between the previous prediction and the outcome....

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adaptive expectations

Nigar Hashimzade, Gareth Myles and John Black.

in A Dictionary of Economics

January 2017; p ublished online January 2017 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Economics. 128 words.

The principle that the future value of an economic variable is calculated using the previous prediction plus some fraction of the difference between the previous prediction and the outcome....

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deferred taxation

Jonathan Law.

in A Dictionary of Finance and Banking

March 2018; p ublished online March 2018 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Banking; Social Sciences; Economics. 124 words.

A sum set aside for tax in the *accounts of an organization that will become payable in a period other than that under review. It arises because of timing differences between tax rules and...

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energy balance

Tony Atkins and Marcel Escudier.

in A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering

January 2013; p ublished online September 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Mechanical Engineering. 50 words.

According to the conservation of energy principle, the net change in the total energy of a system during a process is equal to the difference between the total energy entering and the total...

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energy balance

Marcel Escudier and Tony Atkins.

in A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering

July 2019; p ublished online July 2019 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Mechanical Engineering; Engineering and Technology. 54 words.

According to the conservation of energy principle, the net change in the total energy of a system during a process is equal to the difference between the total energy entering and the total...

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degeneracy pressure

Overview page. Subjects: Physics.

The pressure in a degenerate gas of fermions caused by the Pauli exclusion principle and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Because of the exclusion principle, fermions at a high...

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Identified versus Statistical Lives

Dan W. Brock.

in Identified versus Statistical Lives

August 2015; p ublished online April 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Moral Philosophy; Social and Political Philosophy. 4300 words.

This chapter introduces and briefly evaluates several arguments commonly thought to support the moral importance of the distinction between statistical and identified lives in the context...

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The Exclusion Problem, the Determination Relation, and Contrastive Causation*

Peter Menzies.

in Being Reduced

September 2008; p ublished online February 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Mind. 10508 words.

This chapter critically examines the causal exclusion argument against non-reductive physicalism. It argues that a contrastive account of causation falsifies the exclusion principle when it...

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Private Law and Rawls’s Principles of Justice

Samuel Freeman.

in Liberalism and Distributive Justice

September 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Social and Political Philosophy. 16252 words.

This chapter discusses the application of Rawls’s principles of justice to private law, or the law of legal relationships between individuals, including the law of property, contracts, and...

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Decisions Behind the Veil

Justin P. Bruner.

in Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy, Volume 2

March 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Moral Philosophy. 4756 words.

This chapter explores the behavior of individuals placed in circumstances approximating the ‘veil of ignorance.’ Unlike previous experiments of Rawls’ veil, it considers Rawls’ fair...

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The rule of law and the rule of judges

Timothy Endicott.

in Administrative Law

May 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Constitutional and Administrative Law. 14696 words.

At common law, the judges will hold administrative conduct to be unlawful on any of three grounds: error of law, lack of due process, or the improper exercise of discretionary power. This...

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