in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations
January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; International Relations. 227 words.
The Warsaw Pact, formally the ‘Warsaw Treaty Of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance’ was formed in May 1955. The immediate reason given for its formation was the Paris Agreements...
in The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics
December 2000; p ublished online December 2000 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Pure Mathematics. 0 words.
We investigate the relationship between multiplicative unstable cohomology operations G0(−) → E0(−)and formal group laws for a certain important class of theories. As an application we...
in American Law
January 2017; p ublished online January 2017 .
Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Law. 8319 words.
This chapter discusses formal and informal law and its operation in both public and private institutions. Formal law includes rules established by an institution according to certain...
in The World Bank Research Observer
February 1999; p ublished online February 1999 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Development Planning and Policy. 0 words.
Water markets—either formal or informal—can be an efficient method for reallocating scarce water supplies. At the same time certain constraints can raise the transaction costs of trading...
Informality and Effectiveness in the Operation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
in Journal of International Economic Law
September 2003; p ublished online September 2003 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Financial Law; Public International Law; Economics. 0 words.
The use of informal means to define the roles of the major organs of the Bank, to formulate institutional policies, to avoid disputes and sanctions or to interpret the treaty establishing...
Co-operation in the Nordic countries before 1914: international networks and the transmission of ideas
in The International Co-operative Alliance and the consumer co-operative movement in northern Europe, c. 1860-1939
June 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .
Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 13502 words.
The chapter introduces the co-operative movement in the Nordic countries (excluding Iceland), summarising the history of co-operation in each country in turn. It asks what were the main...
in A Dictionary of British History
P ublished online July 2015 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: British History. 57 words.
The London Stock Exchange was founded in 1802, providing a mechanism for the increasing volume and complexity of financial transactions which had developed in the 18th cent. The scale of...
in A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
June 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Electronic Engineering. 88 words.
A table used in formal logic that lists the truth or falsity of the outcome when a logical operator, such as ‘and’ or ‘or’, is applied to combinations of logical statements. The truth table...
in Code and Clay, Data and Dirt
October 2017; p ublished online September 2018 .
Chapter. Subjects: Media Studies. 8956 words.
“Of Mud, Media, and the Metropolis…,” examines the entwined histories of brick-making, mark-making, and city-building. I examine how urban surfaces have served as substrates for writing,...
in Equilibrium, Stability and Growth
March 1963; p ublished online November 2003 .
Chapter. Subjects: Economic Development and Growth. 10033 words.
This chapter discusses formal similarities between the exchange equilibrium under weak gross substitutability and the static input–output system as represented by various Leontief‐type...
in International Mathematics Research Notices
August 2018; p ublished online March 2017 .
Journal Article. Subjects: Mathematics; Pure Mathematics. 18839 words.
In this article, we calculate the ring of unstable (possibly nonadditive) operations from algebraic Morava K-theory [math] to Chow groups with...
in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics
January 2014; p ublished online May 2014 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: Linguistics. 238 words.
A type of formal grammar, originally devised by the logician K. Ajdukiewicz in the 1930s. Its basis is a lexicon, in which words are assigned to categories of greater or lesser complexity:...
in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
January 2005; p ublished online January 2006 .
Reference Entry. Subjects: History of English. 176 words.
Berlin airlift an operation by British and American aircraft to airlift food and supplies to Berlin in 1948–9, while Russian forces blockaded the city to isolate it from the West and...