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Steiner, Rudolf (1861–1925)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 512 words.

(Kraljević, Croatia, 1861–1925, Dornach nr. Basel),

is the founder of Anthroposophy, of the Goetheanum (Hochschule für Geisteswissenschaften) in Dornach,

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Klimt, Gustav (1862–1918)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 23 words.

(Vienna, 1862–1918, Vienna),

the principal Austrian painter of art nouveau (Jugendstil), and the founder of the Viennese Sezession (

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Carocci, Alberto (1904–72)

Sarah Morgan.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 66 words.

(1904–72).

Novelist and poet, best known as a founder and editor of literary journals, particularly in

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Cederna, Camilla (1921–97)

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 60 words.

(1921–97).

Milanese journalist, who was one of the founders of L'Europeo in 1945. Her collections of

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Beccaria, Cesare (1738–94)

Gino Bedani.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 390 words.

(1738–94).

Milanese philosopher and reformer, and along with Pietro Verri a founder member of the journal Il

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Garoglio, Diego (1866–1933)

Paul Barnaby.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 67 words.

(1866–1933).

Writer from Piedmont who was among the founders of Vita nova and Il Marzocco in Florence.

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Grande, Adriano (1897–1972)

John Johnson.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 55 words.

(1897–1972).

Genoese poet, who was one of the founders of the literary review Circoli (1931–6).

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Vignali, Antonio (1501–59)

Diego Zancani.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 58 words.

(1501–59).

Born in Siena, he was one of the founders of the Accademia degli Intronati. His

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Labriola, Antonio (1843–1904)

John Dickie.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 55 words.

(1843–1904).

Philosopher and founder of theoretical Marxism in Italy. His early training was in the Hegelianism of the

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Lazzarini, Domenico (1668–1734)

John Lindon.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 49 words.

(1668–1734).

Founder member of the Accademia dell' Arcadia and from 1711 professor of classics at Padua. He

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Loredan, Gian Francesco (1607–61)

Letizia Panizza.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 158 words.

(1607–61).

Gifted Venetian aristocrat, founder and main motive force of the Accademia degli Incogniti. His own

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Manfredi, Eustachio (1674–1739)

John Lindon.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 87 words.

(1674–1739).

Astronomer and poet, who was a founder member of Arcadia in Bologna and became the city's

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Marchesa Colombi (1846–1920)

Ursula Fanning.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 101 words.

(1846–1920).

Novelist and journalist who married and later separated from Eugenio Torrelli Viollier, the founder and editor

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Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (1876–1944)

Shirley Vinall.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 423 words.

(1876–1944).

Poet, novelist, dramatist, and, above all, founder and prime mover of Futurism.

Born

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Meneghello, Luigi (1922–2007)

Lino Pertile.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 203 words.

(1922–2007).

Writer who was also the founder of the Department of Italian Studies in the University of Reading

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Rivoluzione liberale, La (1922–5)

Darrow Schecter.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 118 words.

(1922–5).

Turinese weekly journal. Its founder and editor, Piero Gobetti, wanted it to articulate a non-reactionary,

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Rossanda, Rossana (1924– )

Robert Lumley.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 54 words.

(1924– ).

Prominent Communist intellectual, who was one of the founders of the newspaper Il Manifesto following her expulsion

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Roversi, Roberto (1923– )

Michael Caesar.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 101 words.

(1923– ).

Poet and owner of the Palmaverde antiquarian bookshop in Bologna. He was one of the founders

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Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945)

David Forgacs.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 312 words.

(1883–1945).

Founder and leader of Fascism and head of Italy's government from 1922 to 1943. Born in

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Pallavicino, Ferrante (1615–44)

Letizia Panizza.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 301 words.

(1615–44).

Prolific satirist and novelist. He was protected in Venice by the founder of the Accademia degli

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