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cytoplasmic bridge

Overview page. Subjects: Medicine and Health.

A thin, direct cytoplasmic connection between two cells through which large molecules can pass (unlike gap junctions). Common in plants (plasmodesmata) but rare in animals except between...

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plasmodesma

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry.

(pl. plasmodesmata or plasmodesmas)

a fine cytoplasmic channel, found in all higher plants, that connects the cytoplasm of one cell to that of an adjacent cell. It is a roughly ...

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symplast

Edited by Robert Hine.

in A Dictionary of Biology

April 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Biological Sciences. 75 words.

All the *protoplasts in plants and their interconnecting cytoplasmic channels—the *plasmodesmata. This effectively forms a continuous system of cytoplasm bounded by the plasma membranes of...

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Maintaining Apical Dominance in the Fern Gametophyte

DAVID M. HOLLOWAY and MARIA LANTIN.

in Annals of Botany

April 2002; p ublished online April 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 5043 words.

A kinetic model is developed for cell differentiation in the fern gametophyte to test hypotheses on the role of spatially patterned plasmodesmata networks in development. Of particular...

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Symplastic intercellular transport from a developmental perspective

Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

April 2014; p ublished online March 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 5945 words.

Plant cells have channel-like structures named plasmodesmata that allow for the symplastic molecular transport between neighbouring cells. The importance of plasmodesmata in whole plant...

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Exposure to heavy metal stress triggers changes in plasmodesmatal permeability via deposition and breakdown of callose

Ruthsabel O’Lexy, Koji Kasai, Natalie Clark, Toru Fujiwara, Rosangela Sozzani and Kimberly L Gallagher.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

June 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 10149 words.

Abstract

Both plants and animals must contend with changes in their environment. The ability to respond appropriately to these changes often underlies the...

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cell junction

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Chemistry.

Any of various kinds of connection between cells. Tight junctions form a seal between adjacent cells, particularly in epithelia, to prevent the passage of materials between cells. A...

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Water Permeability and Revolving Movement in <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L. Twining Shoots

Sylviane Comparot, Raphaël Morillon and Pierre-Marie Badot.

in Plant and Cell Physiology

January 2000; p ublished online January 2000 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Biochemistry; Molecular and Cell Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 0 words.

Osmotic water permeability (Pos ) was measured in protoplasts isolated from different tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris twining shoot. Parenchyma protoplasts exhibited more...

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pit

Overview page. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry.

A region in a cell wall where the primary wall is not overlaid by secondary thickening, through which substances can be exchanged between adjacent cells. The pit consists of a cavity, which...

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Early local differentiation of the cell wall matrix defines the contact sites in lobed mesophyll cells of <i>Zea mays</i>

E. Giannoutsou, P. Sotiriou, P. Apostolakos and B. Galatis.

in Annals of Botany

October 2013; p ublished online August 2013 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 9206 words.

Background and Aims

The morphogenesis of lobed mesophyll cells (MCs) is highly controlled and coupled with intercellular space formation. Cortical...

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On the mechanism of C<sub>4</sub> photosynthesis intermediate exchange between Kranz mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in grasses

Paweł Sowiński, Jarosław Szczepanik and Peter E. H. Minchin.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

April 2008; p ublished online March 2008 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 6008 words.

C4 photosynthesis involves cell-to-cell exchange of photosynthetic intermediates between the Kranz mesophyll (KMS) and bundle sheath (BS) cells. This was believed to occur by simple...

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Alterations in ultrastructure and subcellular localization of Ca<sup>2+</sup> in poplar apical bud cells during the induction of dormancy

Ling-cheng Jian, Paul H. Li, Long-hua Sun and Tony H.H. Chen.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

June 1997; p ublished online June 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 0 words.

In poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh), bud dormancy and freezing tolerance were concomitantly induced by short-day (SD) photoperiods. Ultrastructural changes and the alteration in...

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heterocyst

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences — Chemistry.

A specialized cell found in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Heterocysts are enlarged cells with thick cell walls and they lack chlorophyll, giving them a colourless appearance. They are the...

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phloem loading

Overview page. Subjects: Biological Sciences.

The processes by which the products of photosynthesis enter the phloem for transport to other tissues within the plant. The carbon fixed by photosynthesis is transported in phloem primarily...

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The Micromorphology of Pit Membranes in Tracheary Elements of Ericales: New Records of Tori or Pseudo-tori?

DAVID RABAEY, FREDERIC LENS, ERIK SMETS and STEVEN JANSEN.

in Annals of Botany

P ublished online August 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 5950 words.

Background and Aims Intervascular pit membranes were examined within Ericales to determine the distribution and structure of torus-like thickenings.

Methods Forty-nine species...

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Pseudopollen: Its Structure and Development in <i>Maxillaria</i>(Orchidaceae)

K. L. Davies, C. Winters and M. P. Turner.

in Annals of Botany

June 2000; p ublished online June 2000 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 3 words.

Histochemical analyses of the pseudopollen of ten species of Maxillaria sectionGrandiflorae revealed that the main storage product is protein, although starch is usually also present. Lipids...

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The Cellular Pathway of Short-distance Transfer of Photosynthates and Potassium in the Elongating Stem of <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L. A Structural Assessment

ROBYN M. WOOD, CHRISTINA E. OFFLER and JOHN W. PATRICK.

in Annals of Botany

January 1997; p ublished online January 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 3 words.

The potential cellular pathway of radial transfer of photosynthate and potassium delivered in the phloem to the elongation zone (apical 0.5–2.5 cm) of internode 2 ofPhaseolus vulgaris L....

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Ultrastructural Changes in Cotyledons of Pineapple Guava (Myrtaceae) During Somatic Embryogenesis

JORGE M. CANHOTO, JOSÉ F. MESQUITA and GIL S. CRUZ.

in Annals of Botany

October 1996; p ublished online October 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 3 words.

Ultrastructural studies (SEM and TEM) were performed on cotyledons of pineapple guava ( Feijoa sellowiana Berg, Myrtaceae) induced to form embryos on medium containing 1.0 mg l−1(4.5μM 2,4-D...

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Sucrose supply to nematode-induced syncytia depends on the apoplasmic and symplasmic pathways

Julia Hofmann, Krzysztof Wieczorek, Andreas Blöchl and Florian M. W. Grundler.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

May 2007; p ublished online April 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 6467 words.

The plant parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii induces syncytial feeding structures in the roots of host plants. Nematode-induced syncytia become strong sink tissues in the plant solute...

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Actin‐dependent fluid‐phase endocytosis in inner cortex cells of maize root apices

F. Baluška, J. Šamaj, A. Hlavacka, J. Kendrick‐Jones and D. Volkmann.

in Journal of Experimental Botany

February 2004; p ublished online February 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry. 6681 words.

The fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow (LY) is a well‐known and widely‐used marker for fluid‐phase endocytosis. In this paper, both light and electron microscopy revealed that LY was...

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