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1848

Overview page. Subjects: Literature.

The most celebrated and widespread of the 19th-c. European revolutions proved also a crucial turning point in the Italian Risorgimento. Beginning with an insurrection in Palermo in January,...

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Donizetti, Gaetano (1797–1848)

David Kimbell.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 116 words.

(1797–1848)

was by the late 1830s the most frequently performed opera composer in Italy, anticipating Verdi in his

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Gauguin, Paul (1848–1903)

James Kearns.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 112 words.

(1848–1903).

Considered today one of the founders of 20th‐c. painting, Gauguin initially exhibited with the Impressionists before developing

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1848

Lucy Riall.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 115 words.

The most celebrated and widespread of the 19th-c. European revolutions proved also a crucial turning point in the Italian Risorgimento

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Mirbeau, Octave (1848–1917)

Jennifer Birkett.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 129 words.

(1848–1917).

French journalist, art critic, and novelist. His trajectory from extreme Right to anarchist Left

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Huysmans, Joris‐Karl (1848–1907)

Jennifer Birkett.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 432 words.

(1848–1907).

Though he first became known as a writer of Naturalist fiction (Marthe, histoire d'une fille,

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Jagemann, Caroline (1777–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 160 words.

(Weimar, 1777–1848, Dresden),

a noted actress and singer, was trained in Mannheim under Iffland. In 1797 she

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Giordani, Pietro (1774–1848)

Franco D'Intino.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 108 words.

(1774–1848).

Critic and essayist. Born in Piacenza, he studied in Parma, and was for three years a

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Graf, Arturo (1848–1913)

Charles Burdett.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 214 words.

(1848–1913).

Poet and (in his time) an influential literary critic. His father was German and he was born

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Pareto, Vilfredo (1848–1923)

David Forgacs.

in The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 126 words.

(1848–1923).

Economist and sociologist. He trained as an engineer and transferred principles from mechanics (such as equilibrium

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Franzos, Karl Emil (1848–1904)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 158 words.

(Czortkow, Galicia, 1848–1904, Berlin),

the son of a doctor, studied law at Vienna and Graz universities, and then turned

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Schopenhauer, Adele (1797–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 84 words.

(Hamburg, 1797–1848, Bonn),

sister of the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, lived from 1806 to 1828 with her mother Johanna

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Lange, Helene (1848–1930)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 74 words.

(Oldenburg, 1848–1930, Berlin),

a prominent educationist and feminist, urged in a memorandum of 1887 that the education of girls

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Hoffmann, Hans (1848–1909)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 142 words.

(Stettin, 1848–1909, Weimar)

a schoolmaster in Stettin and Stolp in Pomerania, resigned to become a journalist, and then lived

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Moltke, Helmuth von (1848–1916)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 126 words.

(Gersdorff, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1848–1916, Berlin),

‘der jüngere Moltke’, nephew of Field-Marshal Graf Helmuth von Moltke, entered the army in

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Zschokke, Heinrich Daniel (1771–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 331 words.

(Magdeburg, 1771–1848, Aarau),

was orphaned early, received a humanistic education at the Magdeburg Gymnasium, and for a short time

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Malss, Karl (1792–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 97 words.

(Frankfurt/Main, 1792–1848, Frankfurt),

served as a volunteer in the Wars of Liberation (see Napoleonic Wars), becoming a

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Nobiling, Karl Eduard (1848–78)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 82 words.

(Kolno, 1848–78, Berlin),

a minor civil servant, made an attempt to shoot the Emperor Wilhelm I on 2

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Chateaubriand, François‐René, vicomte de (1768–1848)

Frank Paul Bowman.

in The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

January 1995; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 1091 words.

(1768–1848).

Born in Saint‐Malo of an old Breton noble family whose declining fortunes his father somewhat restored, Chateaubriand

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Görres, Johann Joseph von (1776–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 266 words.

(Koblenz, 1776–1848, Munich),

a man of dynamic and choleric temperament who strongly supported the French Revolution while a student,

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Hormayr, Joseph, Freiherr von (1782–1848)

Edited by Henry Garland and Mary Garland.

in The Oxford Companion to German Literature

January 1997; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Literary Studies (European). 114 words.

(Innsbruck, 1782–1848, Munich),

an Austrian civil servant, took part in 1809 in the rising against the French in his

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