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Caspian Sea

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History.

Named after the ancient Caspii who lived on its southwestern shores, the Caspian is the world’s largest inland body of water. Geographically it is a lake, but it is big ...

See overview in Oxford Index

Jaxartes

Eric Herbert Warmington and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 123 words.

Asiatic river (mod. Syr Darya, flowing into the Aral Sea). Though known perhaps to *Herodotus (1) by repute, it was discovered by *Alexander (3) the Great, who founded *Alexandria (5) Eschate...

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Oxus

Eric Herbert Warmington and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 148 words.

Oxus (Ὦξος mod. Amu Darya), central Asian river bounding *Bactria to the south before flowing north-west into the Aral Sea. Known by name to *Herodotus (1) and *Aristotle, it was apparently confused...

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Armenia

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White and Josef Wiesehöfer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 1175 words.

A mountainous region of eastern Anatolia, north of Syria and Mesopotamia, bounded on the east by *Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan) and on the west by *Cappadocia and *Commagene. The region, known...

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Media

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 437 words.

Media, the country of the Medes, was situated in mountainous country south-west of the *Caspian Sea. The Medes spoke a language akin to Old *Persian. Fragments of the language (as either loanwords or...

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Slavery in Islamic Central Asia

Jeff Eden.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Central Asian History; Middle Eastern History; Asian History. 7456 words.

By the late 19th century, when much of Islamic Central Asia was conquered by the Russian Empire, the region was home to tens of thousands of slaves. Most of these slaves were Shiʿa Muslims...

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