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Caspian Sea

Overview page. Subjects: Maritime History.

Named after the ancient Caspii who lived on its southwestern shores, the Caspian is the world’s largest inland body of water. Geographically it is a lake, but it is big ...

See overview in Oxford Index

Jaxartes

Eric Herbert Warmington and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 123 words.

Asiatic river (mod. Syr Darya, flowing into the Aral Sea). Though known perhaps to *Herodotus (1) by repute, it was discovered by *Alexander (3) the Great, who founded *Alexandria (5) Eschate...

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Oxus

Eric Herbert Warmington and Antony Spawforth.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 148 words.

Oxus (Ὦξος mod. Amu Darya), central Asian river bounding *Bactria to the south before flowing north-west into the Aral Sea. Known by name to *Herodotus (1) and *Aristotle, it was apparently confused...

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Iranian-Russian Relations in the Eighteenth Century

Goodarz Rashtiani.

in Crisis, Collapse, Militarism and Civil War

July 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Asian History. 9230 words.

The main objective of the present chapter is to analyze the structure and features governing the relations between Iran and Russia in different political, economic, and social spheres in...

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The Ottoman Northern Black Sea Frontier at Akkerman Fortress: The View from a Historical and Archaeological Project

VICTOR OSTAPCHUK and SVITLANA BILYAYEVA.

in The Frontiers of the Ottoman World

December 2009; p ublished online February 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Asian History. 14086 words.

The northern frontiers of the Ottoman Empire lay across a swathe of lands between Hungary and Iran, arcing through the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, then north of the Black Sea...

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Through an Ocean of Sand: Pastoralism and the Equestrian Culture of the Eurasian Steppe

Arash Khazeni.

in Water on Sand

December 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Asian History. 11201 words.

Through a reading of nineteenth-century Persian natural histories and travel narratives about the Eurasian steppe from eastern Iran to western China, this chapter diverges from prevailing...

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Bitter Choices

Michael Khodarkovsky.

October 2011; p ublished online August 2016 .

Book. Subjects: Russian and Eastern European History. 216 pages.

Russia's attempt to consolidate its authority in the North Caucasus has exerted a terrible price on both sides since the mid-nineteenth century. This book tells a concise and compelling...

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Armenia

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White and Josef Wiesehöfer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 1175 words.

A mountainous region of eastern Anatolia, north of Syria and Mesopotamia, bounded on the east by *Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan) and on the west by *Cappadocia and *Commagene. The region, known...

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Christianity in Asia

Barbara Watson Andaya.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Asian History. 14251 words.

The 21st century has often been touted as the “Asian century,” largely because of the remarkable resurgence of China as an economic power. There are nonetheless other developments afoot,...

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Media

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History. 437 words.

Media, the country of the Medes, was situated in mountainous country south-west of the *Caspian Sea. The Medes spoke a language akin to Old *Persian. Fragments of the language (as either loanwords or...

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Avestan Society

Prods Oktor Skjærvø.

in The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History

February 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: History; Asian History. 25981 words.

The Avestan language present in the area stretching from the Aral Sea to Helmand province in southern Afghanistan and southeast of the Caspian Sea was in circulation between the second and...

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Georgia before the Mongols

Stephen H. Rapp Jr..

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Central Asian History. 13781 words.

Nestled in one of Eurasia’s most energetic crossroads, Georgia has a long and multifaceted history. The remains of Homo georgicus excavated at Dmanisi in southern Georgia belong to the...

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Slavery in Islamic Central Asia

Jeff Eden.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Central Asian History; Middle Eastern History; Asian History. 7456 words.

By the late 19th century, when much of Islamic Central Asia was conquered by the Russian Empire, the region was home to tens of thousands of slaves. Most of these slaves were Shiʿa Muslims...

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