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companion

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence.

N.

1 a covering over the hatchway leading below decks.

2 a raised frame with windows on the quarterdeck of a ship to allow light into the decks...

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Persuasive companions can be wrong: the use of misleading social information in nutmeg mannikins

Guillaume Rieucau and Luc-Alain Giraldeau.

in Behavioral Ecology

January 2009; p ublished online August 2009 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Ecology and Conservation; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 4042 words.

Animals sample their surrounding environment to collect information, which can be obtained personally or by tracking the behavior of others (i.e., social information). Although social...

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Edward C. Holmes and Dominik Wodarz.

in Encyclopedia of Evolution

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology. 6732 words.

This entry comprises two articles. The introductory article provides a discussion of the origins and phylogeny of HIV; the companion

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Language

Daniel Nettle.

in Encyclopedia of Evolution

January 2002; p ublished online January 2005 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology. 6265 words.

This entry comprises two articles. The first article focuses on the issue of language versus nonhuman primate communication; the companion

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Applications of Codon and Rate Variation Models in Molecular Phylogeny

Eric E. Schadt, Janet S. Sinsheimer and Kenneth Lange.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution

September 2002; p ublished online September 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 7221 words.

The current article illustrates the practical advantages of some new models and statistical algorithms for codon substitution and spatial rate variation in molecular phylogeny. Our companion...

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Population Variation Revealed High-Altitude Adaptation of Tibetan Mastiffs

Yan Li, Dong-Dong Wu, Adam R. Boyko, Guo-Dong Wang, Shi-Fang Wu, David M. Irwin and Ya-Ping Zhang.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution

May 2014; p ublished online February 2014 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 3555 words.

With the assistance of their human companions, dogs have dispersed into new environments during the expansion of human civilization. Tibetan Mastiff (TM), a native of the Tibetan Plateau,...

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Codon and Rate Variation Models in Molecular Phylogeny

Eric Schadt and Kenneth Lange.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution

September 2002; p ublished online September 2002 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 11546 words.

This article generalizes previous models for codon substitution and rate variation in molecular phylogeny. Particular attention is paid to (1) reversibility, (2) acceptance and rejection of...

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Comparisons of Site- and Haplotype-Frequency Methods for Detecting Positive Selection

Kai Zeng, Shuhei Mano, Suhua Shi and Chung-I Wu.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution

July 2007; p ublished online April 2007 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 8325 words.

In this report, we compare the differences between various site- and haplotype-frequency tests in their power to detect positive selection by doing computer simulations. Our results are the...

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The Rieske Protein: A Case Study on the Pitfalls of Multiple Sequence Alignments and Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Evelyne Lebrun, Joanne M. Santini, Myriam Brugna, Anne-Lise Ducluzeau, Soufian Ouchane, Barbara Schoepp-Cothenet, Frauke Baymann and Wolfgang Nitschke.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution

June 2006; p ublished online March 2006 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Molecular and Cell Biology. 8810 words.

Previously published phylogenetic trees reconstructed on “Rieske protein” sequences frequently are at odds with each other, with those of other subunits of the parent enzymes and with...

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No evidence for negative frequency–dependent feeding performance in relation to personality

Ralf H.J.M. Kurvers, Simone I. van Santen de Hoog, Sipke E. van Wieren, Ronald C. Ydenberg and Herbert H.T. Prins.

in Behavioral Ecology

January 2012; p ublished online October 2011 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Ecology and Conservation; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 5489 words.

An increasing number of studies report the presence of consistent individual differences in behavior and/or physiology over time and context, known as animal personality. A pivotal question...

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Group size effect caused by food competition in nutmeg mannikins (Lonchura punctulata)

Guillaume Rieucau and Luc-Alain Giraldeau.

in Behavioral Ecology

January 2009; p ublished online November 2008 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Ecology and Conservation; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 3909 words.

When foraging group sizes increase, animals generally decrease the time devoted to antipredator detection and increase their foraging rate, the commonly reported group size effect. The...

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Flock density, social foraging, and scanning: an experiment with starlings

Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Steven Siller and Alex Kacelnik.

in Behavioral Ecology

May 2004; p ublished online May 2004 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Ecology and Conservation; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 7945 words.

Social foraging differs from individual foraging because it alters both resource availability and the forager's behavior. We examined responses of starlings to the presence of conspecifics...

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Boldness affects foraging decisions in barnacle geese: an experimental approach

Ralf H. J. M. Kurvers, Bart A. Nolet, Herbert H. T. Prins, Ronald C. Ydenberg and Kees van Oers.

in Behavioral Ecology

January 2012; p ublished online July 2012 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Ecology and Conservation; Zoology and Animal Sciences. 5976 words.

Individuals foraging in groups constantly need to make decisions, such as when to leave a group, when to join a group, and when to move collectively to another feeding site. In recent...

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Floral Nectar Production and Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

TYLER J. WIST and ARTHUR R. DAVIS.

in Annals of Botany

February 2006; p ublished online December 2005 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 11681 words.

Background and Aims In spite of the impressive species diversity in the Asteraceae and their widespread appeal to many generalist pollinators, floral-nectary ultrastructure in the family...

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Overwintering of Trifolium repens L. and Succeeding Growth: Results from a Common Protocol carried out at Twelve European Sites

M. Wachendorf, R. P. Collins, J. Connolly, A. Elgersma, M. Fothergill, B. E. Frankow-Lindberg, A. Ghesquiere, A. Guckert, M. P. Guinchard, A. Helgadottir, A. Lüscher, T. Nolan, P. Nykänen-Kurki, J. Nösberger, G. Parente, S. Puzio, I. Rhodes, C. Robin, A. Ryan, B. Stäheli, S. Stoffel and F. Taube.

in Annals of Botany

October 2001; p ublished online October 2001 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry; Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology. 0 words.

A common experimental protocol was followed at 12 sites in Europe to study the development of two clover cultivars (AberHerald and Huia) grown in association with a ryegrass cultivar...

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The Cellular Pathway of Short-distance Transfer of Photosynthates and Potassium in the Elongating Stem of Phaseolus vulgaris L. A Structural Assessment

ROBYN M. WOOD, CHRISTINA E. OFFLER and JOHN W. PATRICK.

in Annals of Botany

January 1997; p ublished online January 1997 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 3 words.

The potential cellular pathway of radial transfer of photosynthate and potassium delivered in the phloem to the elongation zone (apical 0.5–2.5 cm) of internode 2 ofPhaseolus vulgaris L....

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Overwintering of Trifolium repens L. and Succeeding Growth: Results from a Common Protocol carried out at Twelve European Sites

M. Wachendorf, R. P. Collins, J. Connolly, A. Elgersma, M. Fothergill, B. E. Frankow-Lindberg, A. Ghesquiere, A. Guckert, M. P. Guinchard, A. Helgadottir, A. Lüscher, T. Nolan, P. Nykänen-Kurki, J. Nösberger, G. Parente, S. Puzio, I. Rhodes, C. Robin, A. Ryan, B. Stäheli, S. Stoffel and F. Taube.

in Annals of Botany

October 2001; p ublished online October 2001 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 0 words.

A common experimental protocol was followed at 12 sites in Europe to study the development of two clover cultivars (AberHerald and Huia) grown in association with a ryegrass cultivar...

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CN-Wheat, a functional–structural model of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in wheat culms after anthesis. I. Model description

Romain Barillot, Camille Chambon and Bruno Andrieu.

in Annals of Botany

October 2016; p ublished online August 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 10636 words.

Background and Aims Improving crops requires better linking of traits and metabolic processes to whole plant performance. In this paper, we present CN-Wheat, a comprehensive...

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Structure of Hair Roots in Lysinema ciliatum R. Br. and its Implications for their Water Relations

W. G. ALLAWAY and A. E. ASHFORD.

in Annals of Botany

April 1996; p ublished online April 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 0 words.

The fine lateral roots ofLysinema ciliatum R. Br., an epacrid from habitats subject to periodic drought in Western Australia, are hair roots resembling those of Ericaceae. The finest...

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Crop acquisition of phosphorus, iron and zinc from soil in cereal/legume intercropping systems: a critical review

Yanfang Xue, Haiyong Xia, Peter Christie, Zheng Zhang, Long Li and Caixian Tang.

in Annals of Botany

March 2016; p ublished online January 2016 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 10809 words.

Background Phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are essential elements for plant growth and development, but their availability in soil is often limited. Intercropping...

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Radiation Interception, Partitioning and Use in Grass –Clover Mixtures

O. FAURIE, J. F. SOUSSANA and H. SINOQUET.

in Annals of Botany

January 1996; p ublished online January 1996 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Ecology and Conservation; Evolutionary Biology; Plant Sciences and Forestry. 0 words.

Mixed swards of perennial ryegrass /white clover were grown in competition under controlled environmental conditions, at two temperatures and with different inorganic nitrogen supplies. The...

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